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Title: Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae casts NOX-independent NETosis and induces enhanced IL-12, TNF-α, IL-6, CCL2 and iNOS gene transcription in caprine PMN
Authors: Pérez Barreto,Davinia 
Muñoz-Caro, T.
Silva, L. M.R.
Muñoz Ojeda, María Del Carmen 
Molina Caballero, José Manuel 
Taubert, A.
Hermosilla, C.
Ruiz Reyes, Antonio 
UNESCO Clasification: 310907 Patología
Keywords: Chemokines
Eimeria Ninakohlyakimovae
Issue Date: 2021
Journal: Experimental parasitology 
Abstract: Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae represents a highly pathogenic coccidian parasite causing severe haemorrhagic typhlocolitis in goat kids worldwide. NETosis was recently described as an efficient defense mechanism of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) acting against different parasites in vitro and in vivo. In vitro interactions of caprine PMN with parasitic stages of E. ninakohlyakimovae (i. e. oocysts and sporozoites) as well as soluble oocyst antigens (SOA) were analyzed at different ratios, concentrations and time spans. Extracellular DNA staining was used to illustrate classical molecules induced during caprine NETosis [i. e. histones (H3) and neutrophil elastase (NE)] via antibody-based immunofluorescence analyses. Functional inhibitor treatments with DPI and DNase I were applied to unveil role of NADPH oxidase (NOX) and characterize DNA-backbone composition of E. ninakohlyakimovae-triggered caprine NETosis. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)- and immunofluorescence-analyses demonstrated that caprine PMN underwent NETosis upon contact with sporozoites and oocysts of E. ninakohlyakimovae, ensnaring filaments which firmly entrapped parasites. Detailed co-localization studies of E. ninakohlyakimovae-induced caprine NETosis revealed presence of PMN-derived DNA being adorned with nuclear H3 and NE corroborating molecular characteristics of NETosis. E. ninakohlyakoimovae-induced caprine NETosis was found to be NOX-independent since DPI inhibition led to a slight decrease of NETosis. Exposure of caprine PMN to vital E. ninakohlyakimovae sporozoites as well as SOA resulted in up-regulation of IL-12, TNF-α, IL-6, CCL2 and iNOS gene transcription in stimulated PMN. Since vital E. ninakohlyakimovae-sporozoites induced caprine NETosis, this effective entrapment mechanism might reduce initial sporozoite epithelial host cell invasion during goat coccidiosis ultimately resulting in less macromeront formation and reduced merozoites I production.
ISSN: 0014-4894
DOI: 10.1016/j.exppara.2020.108034
Source: Experimental Parasitology [ISSN 0014-4894], n. 220, (Enero 2021)
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