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Title: Multistage horizontal subsurface flow vs. hybrid constructedwetlands for the treatment of raw urban wastewater
Authors: Herrera-Melián, José Alberto 
Mendoza-Aguiar, Mónica
Guedes Alonso, Rayco 
García-Jiménez, Pilar 
Carrasco-Acosta, Marina 
Ranieri, Ezio
UNESCO Clasification: 330810 Tecnología de aguas residuales
Keywords: Gravel
Horizontal Flow
Organic Mulch
Shallow Constructed Wetland, et al
Issue Date: 2020
Journal: Sustainability (Switzerland) 
Abstract: In this study, pilot-scale hybrid constructed wetlands (CWs) and multistage horizontal subsurface flow CWs (HF CWs) have been studied and compared for the treatment of raw urban wastewater. In the hybrid CWs, the first stage was a mulch-based horizontal subsurface flow CW and the second stage was a vertical subsurface flow CW (VF CW). The VF CWs were used to determine if sand could improve the performance of the hybrid CW with respect to the mulch. In the multistage HFs, mulch, gravel and sand were used as substrates. The effect of water height (HF10: 10 cm vs. HF40: 40 cm) and surface loading rate (SLR: 12 vs. 24 g Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)/m2d) has been studied. The results show that the use of sand in the vertical flow stage of the hybrid CW did not improve the average performance. Additionally, the sand became clogged, while the mulch did not. The effect of water height on average pollutant removal was not determined but HF10 performed better regarding compliance with legal regulations. With a SLR of 12 g COD/m2d, removals of HF10 were: 79% for COD, 75% for NH4+-N, 53% for dissolved molybdate-reactive phosphate-P (DRP), 99% for turbidity and 99.998% for E. coli and total coliforms. When SLR was doubled, removals decreased for NH4+-N: 49%, DRP:-20%, E coli and total coliforms: 99.5-99.9%, but not for COD (85%) and turbidity (99%). Considering the obtained results and the simplicity of the construction and operation of HFs, HF10 would be the most suitable choice for the treatment of raw urban wastewater without clogging problems.
ISSN: 2071-1050
DOI: 10.3390/su12125102
Source: Sustainability (Switzerland) [EISSN 2071-1050], v. 12, 5102, (Junio 2020)
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