Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10553/50503
Title: Toward kilo-instruction processors
Authors: Cristal, Adrián
Santana, Oliverio J. 
Valero, Mateo
Martínez, José F.
UNESCO Clasification: 330406 Arquitectura de ordenadores
Keywords: Design
Instruction-level parallelism
Kilo-instruction processors
Memory wall
Multicheckpointing
Performance
Issue Date: 2004
Journal: Transactions on Architecture and Code Optimization 
Abstract: The continuously increasing gap between processor and memory speeds is a serious limitation to the performance achievable by future microprocessors. Currently, processors tolerate long-latency memory operations largely by maintaining a high number of in-flight instructions. In the future, this may require supporting many hundreds, or even thousands, of in-flight instructions. Unfortunately, the traditional approach of scaling up critical processor structures to provide such support is impractical at these levels, due to area, power, and cycle time constraints.In this paper we show that, in order to overcome this resource-scalability problem, the way in which critical processor resources are managed must be changed. Instead of simply upsizing the processor structures, we propose a smarter use of the available resources, supported by a selective checkpointing mechanism. This mechanism allows instructions to commit out of order, and makes a reorder buffer unnecessary. We present a set of techniques such as multilevel instruction queues, late allocation and early release of registers, and early release of load/store queue entries. All together, these techniques constitute what we call a kilo-instruction processor, an architecture that can support thousands of in-flight instructions, and thus may achieve high performance even in the presence of large memory access latencies.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10553/50503
ISSN: 1544-3566
DOI: 10.1145/1044823.1044825
Source: ACM Transactions on Architecture and Code Optimization [ISSN 1544-3566], v. 1 (4), p. 389-417
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