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Title: Neuronal and glial differentiation during lizard (Gallotia galloti) visual system ontogeny
Authors: Romero-Alemán, M. M. 
Monzón-Mayor, M. 
Santos, E.
Lang, D. M.
Yanes, C. 
Keywords: Fibrillary Acidic Protein
Iii Beta-Tubulin
Fish Optic-Nerve
Sonic-Hedgehog, et al
Issue Date: 2012
Publisher: 0021-9967
Journal: Journal of Comparative Neurology 
Abstract: We studied the histogenesis of the lizard visual system (E30 to adulthood) by using a selection of immunohistochemical markers that had proved relevant for other vertebrates. By E30, the Pax6+ pseudostratified retinal epithelium shows few newborn retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the centrodorsal region expressing neuron- and synaptic-specific markers such as betaIII-tubulin (Tuj1), synaptic vesicle protein-2 (SV2), and vesicular glutamate transporter-1 (VGLUT1). Concurrently, pioneer RGC axons run among the Pax2+ astroglia in the optic nerve and reach the superficial optic tectum. Between E30 and E35, the optic chiasm and optic tract remain acellular, but the latter contains radial processes with subpial endfeet expressing vimentin (Vim). From E35, neuron- and synaptic-specific stainings spread in the retina and optic tectum, whereas retinal Pax6, and Tuj1/SV2 in RGC axons decrease. Muller glia and abundant optic nerve glia express a variety of glia-specific markers until adulthood. Subpopulations of optic nerve glia are also VGLUT1+ and cluster differentiation-44 (CD44)-positive but cytokeratin-negative, unlike the case in other regeneration-competent species. Specifically, coexpression of CD44/Vim and glutamine synthetase (GS)/VGLUT1 reflects glial specialization, insofar as most CD44+ glia are GS-. In the adult optic tract and tectum, radial glia and free astroglia coexist. The latter show different immunocharacterization (Pax2-/CD44-/Vim-) compared with that in the optic nerve. We conclude that upregulation of Tuj1 and SV2 is required for axonal outgrowth and search for appropriate targets, whereas Pax2+ optic nerve astroglia and Vim+ radial glia may aid in early axonal guidance. Spontaneous axonal regrowth seems to succeed despite the heterogeneous mammalian-like glial environment in the lizard optic nerve. J. Comp. Neurol. 520:21632184, 2012. (c) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
ISSN: 0021-9967
DOI: 10.1002/cne.23034
Source: Journal of Comparative Neurology[ISSN 0021-9967],v. 520, p. 2163-2184
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