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Title: Nano-delivery of trace minerals for marine fish larvae: influence on skeletal ossification, and the expression of genes involved in intestinal transport of minerals, osteoblast differentiation, and oxidative stress response
Authors: Terova, Genciana
Rimoldi, Simona
Izquierdo, Marisol 
Pirrone, Cristina
Ghrab, Wafa
Bernardini, Giovanni
UNESCO Clasification: 310502 Piscicultura
Keywords: Aquaculture
Light microscopy
Nanominerals, et al
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: 0920-1742
Journal: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 
Abstract: Currently, the larviculture of many marine fish species with small-sized larvae depends for a short time after hatching, on the supply of high-quality live zooplankton to ensure high survival and growth rates. During the last few decades, the research community has made great efforts to develop artificial diets, which can completely substitute live prey. However, studies aimed at determining optimal levels of minerals in marine larvae compound feeds and the potential of novel delivery vectors for mineral acquisition has only very recently begun. Recently, the agro-food industry has developed several nano-delivery systems, which could be used for animal feed, too. Delivery through nano-encapsulation of minerals and feed additives would protect the bioactive molecules during feed manufacturing and fish feeding and allow an efficient acquisition of active substances into biological system. The idea is that dietary minerals in the form of nanoparticles may enter cells more easily than their larger counterparts enter and thus speed up their assimilation in fish. Accordingly, we evaluated the efficacy of early weaning diets fortified with organic, inorganic, or nanoparticle forms of trace minerals (Se, Zn, and Mn) in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) larvae. We tested four experimental diets: a trace mineral-deficient control diet, and three diets supplemented with different forms of trace minerals. At the end of the feeding trial, larvae growth performance and ossification, and the level of expression of six target genes (SLC11A2, dmt1, BMP2, OC, SOD, GPX), were evaluated. Our data demonstrated that weaning diets supplemented with Mn, Se, and Zn in amino acid-chelated (organic) or nanoparticle form were more effective than diets supplemented with inorganic form of minerals to promote bone mineralization, and prevent skeletal anomalies in seabream larvae. Furthermore, nanometals markedly improved larval stress resistance in comparison to inorganic minerals and upregulated mRNA copy number of OC gene. The expression of this gene was strongly correlated with mineralization degree, thus confirming its potency as a good marker of bone mineralization in gilthead seabream larvae.
ISSN: 0920-1742
DOI: 10.1007/s10695-018-0528-7
Source: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry [ISSN 0920-1742], v. 44 (5), p. 1375-1391
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