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Title: Vascular ultrasound in pediatrics: utility and application of location and measurement of jugular and femoral vessels
Authors: López Álvarez, J. M.
Pérez Quevedo, O.
Santana Cabrera, L.
Rodríguez Escot, C.
Ramírez Lorenzo, T. 
Limiñana Cañal, J. M.
Loro Ferrer, J. F. 
UNESCO Clasification: 320110 Pediatría
Keywords: Internal jugular vein
Femoral vein
Femoral artery
Ultrasound measurement
Pediatric patients
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: 1346-4523
Journal: Journal of Medical Ultrasonics 
Abstract: Objective:To measure the depth (D (p)) and diameter (D (m)) of the internal jugular vein (IJV), femoral vein (FV), and femoral artery (FA) in pediatric patients to evaluate the clinical implications. Methods: This study included 125 pediatric patients. All of them underwent bilateral ultrasound study of vessels and were classified into three groups based on anthropometric and demographic parameters. Results: Measured mean D p values were: 0.72 (0.34) cm for the FA, 0.79 (0.35) cm for the FV, and 0.77 (0.24) cm for the IJV. Mean antero-posterior D m values were: 0.37 (0.17) cm for the FA, 0.42 (0.22) cm for the FV, and 0.59 (0.23) cm for the IJV. D p and D m increased with age (A), weight (W), height (H), and body surface area (BSA). In the lower ranges of these variables, D p was similar for all three studied vessels (0.6–0.7 cm). In the higher ranges, femoral vessel D p values (1.1–1.2 cm) were larger than jugular ones (0.9 cm). Additionally, in these low ranges, IJV D m values were larger than femoral ones (0.45–0.50 vs. 0.25 cm). In the higher ranges, diameter values were similar (0.6–0.7 cm). Conclusions: In pediatric patients, major vessels can be located and their depth and diameter measured by vascular ultrasound. In younger patients, jugular and femoral vessels had similar depth values; in older ones, they had similar diameters. Ultrasound measurements in pediatric patients could facilitate the choice of the vessel to be cannulated, the catheter diameter, and the length of the needle to be used. Vascular canalization of IJV may be recommended as the first choice because of its low depth and large diameter.
ISSN: 1346-4523
DOI: 10.1007/s10396-017-0853-y
Source: Journal of Medical Ultrasonics [ISSN 1346-4523], v. 45 (3), p. 469-477
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