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Title: Cu transport and complexation by the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum: Implications for trace metal complexation kinetics in the surface ocean
Authors: González Dávila, Melchor 
Maldonado, Maria T.
González González, Aridane 
Guo, Jian
Gonzalez Santana,David 
Martel Quintana,Antera De Jesús 
Santana Casiano, Juana Magdalena 
Keywords: Copper
Adsorption kinetics
Cu transport
Diatoms, et al
Issue Date: 2024
Journal: Science of the Total Environment 
Abstract: Elucidating whether dissolved Cu uptake is kinetically or thermodynamically controlled, and the effects of speciation on Cu transport by phytoplankton will allow better modeling of the fate and impact of dissolved Cu in the ocean. To address these questions, we performed Cu physiological and physicochemical experiments using the model diatom, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, grown in natural North Atlantic seawater (0.44 nM Cu). Using competitive ligand equilibration-cathodic stripping voltammetry (CLE-CSV), we measured two organic ligand types released by P. tricornutum to bind Cu (L1 and L2) at concentrations of ~0.35 nM L1 and 1.3 nM L2. We also established the presence of two putative Cu-binding sites at the cell surface of P. tricornutum (S1 and S2) with log K differing by ~5 orders of magnitude (i.e., 12.9 vs. 8.1) and cell surface densities by 9-fold. Only the high-affinity binding sites, S1, exhibit reductase activity. Using voltammetric kinetic measurements and a theoretical kinetic model, we calculated the forward and dissociation rate constants of L1 and S1. Complementary 67Cu uptake experiments identified a high- and a low-affinity Cu uptake system in P. tricornutum, with half-saturation constant (Km) of 154 nM and 2.63 μM dissolved Cu, respectively. In the P. tricornutum genome, we identified a putative high-affinity Cu transporter (PtCTR49224) and a putative ZIP-like, low-affinity Cu transporter (PtZIP49400). PtCTR49224 has high homology to Homo sapiens hCTR1, which depending on the accessibility to extracellular reducing agents, the hCTR1 itself is involved in the reduction of Cu2+ to Cu+ before internalization. We combined these physiological and physicochemical data to calculate the rate constants for the internalization of Cu, and established that while the high-affinity Cu uptake system (S1) is borderline between a kinetically or thermodynamically controlled system, the low-affinity Cu transporters, S2, is thermodynamically-controlled. We revised the inverse relationship between the concentrations of inorganic complexes of essential metals (i.e., Ni, Fe, Co, Zn, Cd, Mn and Cu) in the mixed layer and the formation rate constant of metal transporters in phytoplankton, highlighting the link between the chemical properties of phytoplankton metal transporters and the availability and speciation of trace metals in the surface ocean.
ISSN: 0048-9697
DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2024.170752
Source: Science of the Total Environment [ISSN 0048-9697], v. 919, 170752, (Febrero 2024)
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