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Title: Rapid microwave-assisted extraction method for the analysis of common antidepressants and metabolites in marine organisms
Authors: Santana Viera, Sergio 
Alameda Cuesta, Águeda
Montesdeoca Esponda, Sarah 
Sosa Ferrera, María Zoraida 
Santana-Rodriguez, José Juan 
UNESCO Clasification: 320901 Análisis de medicamentos
250811 Calidad de las aguas
Keywords: Antidepressant compounds
Fish tissue
Mollusc tissue
Solid samples
Microwave-assisted extraction, et al
Issue Date: 2023
Journal: Microchemical Journal 
Abstract: Presence of antidepressants in aquatic environments could cause adverse effects even at low concentrations. Most published works have detected them in wastewater, and only a few have paid attention to the aquatic organisms that receive these polluted waters. This work presents the development, optimisation and application of an analytical method for the extraction and determination of four widely used antidepressants (venlafaxine, citalopram, sertraline, fluoxetine) and two metabolites (o-desmethylvenlafaxine, norsetraline) from fish tissue by microwave-assisted extraction and ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. To demonstrate the applicability of the method, it was validated in different marine organism species (fish, echinoderm, mollusc and algae). Under optimal conditions, recovery ranged between 70 and 120 % and deviation was lower than 20 % in most cases, depending on the species and the tested concentration. As no strong matrix effect was found, applying a clean-up step was unnecessary, although quantification was performed in real samples by matrix-matched calibration. Method quantification limits ranged between 2.32 and 196 ng g−1. Overall, this methodology proved to be a versatile method applicable to different species with good results. The developed analytical method was successfully applied to the extraction and determination of the target compounds from fish taken from offshore aquaculture cages in seawater (Canary Islands). Three main antidepressants were detected, but only two could be quantified: citalopram: 5.83 ng g−1 and sertraline: 6.58 ng g−1.
ISSN: 0026-265X
DOI: 10.1016/j.microc.2023.109471
Source: Microchemical Journal [ISSN 0026-265X], v. 195, 109471, diciembre 2023
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