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Title: Are Citizens Credentialist or Post-Nationalists? A Fuzzy-Eco Apostle Model Applied to National Identity
Authors: Indelicato, Alessandro 
Martín Hernández, Juan Carlos 
Keywords: National identity
International Social Survey Program (ISSP)
Ethnic identity
Civic identity
Credentialists, et al
Issue Date: 2022
Journal: Mathematics 
Abstract: The debate on national identity has been receiving more attention from academics, social planners, and the public in recent years. This study aims to analyse citizens’ different national identity typologies using data from the International Social Survey Program (ISSP) in two waves: 2003 and 2013. The study is based on 10 countries for which the dimensions of the national identity construct are first examined through multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA). Then, a fuzzy hybrid approach is used to obtain two synthetic indicators for each dimension of national identity, namely ethnic and civic orientations. Then, a fuzzy clustering analysis is used to extend the Classical Apostle Model, obtaining 16 different national identity categories that expand the four Apostle categories denominated as credentialists, post-nationalists, ethnic-oriented and civic-oriented. The study ends by applying the Binary Probit Model to analyse whether some socioeconomic characteristics can partly explain the four pure national identity categories. Our results show that people seem to be increasingly credentialists. Furthermore, the civic–ethnic dichotomy of France–Germany is no longer confirmed, as Germans appear to be included in the civic-oriented national identity group.
ISSN: 2227-7390
DOI: 10.3390/math10121978
Source: Mathematics [ISSN 2227-7390], v. 10 (12), 1978, (2022)
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