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Title: Occurrence of pharmaceutical compounds in groundwater from the gran canaria island (Spain)
Authors: Montesdeoca-Esponda, Sarah 
Palacios-Díaz, María del Pino 
Estevez Navarro, Esmeralda 
Sosa-Ferrera, Zoraida 
Santana-Rodríguez, José Juan 
Cabrera, María del Carmen 
UNESCO Clasification: 2301 química analítica
2391 Química ambiental
250804 Aguas subterráneas
Keywords: Emerging Contaminants
Gran Canaria
Reclaimed Water Reuse
Volcanic Aquifer
Issue Date: 2021
Project: Consolider 
Valoracion de Procesos de Recarga y Descarga de Acuiferos Mediante Trazado Natural : Aplicacion en Gran Canaria 
Journal: Water (Switzerland) 
Abstract: The presence of pharmaceutical compounds in the whole environment is a growing concern. These compounds might be present in the effluents of wastewater treatment plants and, hence, irrigation with treated sewage may be a source of groundwater pollution. The volcanic aquifer that lies NE of Gran Canaria (Spain) was studied to address the relationship of the occurrence of pharmaceutical compounds and a golf course that has been irrigated with regenerated water since 1973. Of the 14 analyzed groundwater samples, five wells were chosen to perform annual monitoring. Irrigation water and soil leachate were also evaluated. The target analytes were atenolol, metami-zole, fluoxetine, ibuprofen, nicotine, permethrin, caffeine, and their metabolite paraxanthine. The environmental risk is limited as the concentrations of the pharmaceuticals measured in the sampled wells were always below 60 ng·L−1 (lower than the detected caffeine and nicotine concentrations). Wide variations for the same wells were measured among sampling campaigns, and also among the different wells. The study points to the importance of sample conservation during transport and the need to perform analyses immediately, or to follow an in-situ extraction procedure to carry concentrated samples under better conditions.
DOI: 10.3390/w13030262
Source: Water (Switzerland) [EISSN 2073-4441], v. 13 (3), (Enero 2021)
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