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Title: Intensive livestock farming as a major determinant of the exposure to anticoagulant rodenticides in raptors of the Canary Islands (Spain)
Authors: Rial Berriel, Cristian Javier 
Acosta Dacal, Andrea Carolina 
Cabrera Pérez, Miguel Ángel
Suárez Pérez, Alejandro 
Melián Melián, Ayose
Zumbado Peña, Manuel Luis 
Henríquez Hernández, Luis Alberto 
Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto
Rodríguez Hernández, Ángel 
Domínguez Boada, Luis María 
Macías Montes, Ana
Pérez Luzardo, Octavio Luis 
UNESCO Clasification: 310904 Medicina interna
3214 Toxicología
3109 Ciencias veterinarias
Keywords: Brodifacoum
Common Buzzard
Egyptian Vulture
Falco Tinnunculus, et al
Issue Date: 2021
Journal: Science of the Total Environment 
Abstract: The Canary Islands (Spain) is a biodiversity hotspot, with more than 4500 registered endemic species. However, it is subject to high anthropogenic pressure that threatens its wildlife in various ways. In the context of forensic toxicological surveys, the presence of anticoagulant rodenticides (AR) has been investigated in the liver of 831 animal carcasses with georeferenced data from 2011 to May 2020. The high concentrations of toxic pesticides in carcasses and in baits found close to the corpses indicated that all the reptiles and most of the mammals tested positive for AR were intentionally poisoned, although mainly by other substances. The frequency of detection of AR in non-raptor birds (n = 343) was only 4.1%, being the Canary raven the most frequently affected species (7/97, 7.2%). On the contrary, in raptors (n = 308) the detection frequency was almost 60%, with an average of more than 2 ARs per animal. The highest concentrations were found in the common kestrel. We present for the first-time results of AR contamination in two species of raptors that are very rare in Europe, Eleonora's falcon (n = 4) and Barbary falcon (n = 13). The temporal trend of positive cases remains stable, but since the entry into force of the restriction to the concentration of the active ingredient in baits (<30 ppm), a decrease in the concentrations of these compounds in the raptors' liver has been detected. Conversely, we registered an increase in the number of ARs per animal. From the study of the geographic information system (GIS) it can be deduced that intensive livestock farms are an important determinant in the exposure of raptors to ARs. Those birds that have their territory near intensive production farms have higher levels of exposure than those of birds that live far from such facilities.
ISSN: 0048-9697
DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144386
Source: Science of the Total Environment [ISSN 0048-9697], v. 768, 144386, (Mayo 2021)
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