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Title: Gaining insight into violence from gender stereotypes and sexist attitudes in the context of tourism
Authors: Díaz Meneses, Gonzalo 
Vilkaitė-Vaitonė, Neringa
Estupiñán Ojeda, Miriam 
UNESCO Clasification: 531290 Economía sectorial: turismo
630909 Posición social de la mujer
Keywords: Belief
Issue Date: 2020
Journal: Sustainability (Switzerland) 
Abstract: It is difficult to identify, but there is a type of harassment grounded in gender stereotyping in the context of tourism. It would be useful to discover the hidden relationships between gender harassment and certain beliefs about women as travellers, tourism professionals and sex objects in the field of hospitality. Methodologically, a survey was carried out reaching a sample of ±684 units by means of a convenience sampling procedure. The measuring instruments consisted of a structured questionnaire divided into two kinds of Likert beliefs scales comprising general statements and statements related to tourism. The survey respondent data were also gathered as regards sociodemographic characteristics. This paper presents empirical evidence to identify the causal factors of gender violence by considering general and particular stereotyping in tourism. Firstly, by performing three exploratory factor analyses, three female stereotyping dimensions were labelled in the field of tourism (occupational sexism, ambivalent sexist discrimination, and sex as a commodity), as well as three general prejudices about women (dysfunctional romantic relationships, ethically challenged presumptions, and aesthetical manners conventions) and the gender harassment factor. Secondly, a linear regression analysis was carried out to demonstrate that both general stereotyping related to a broader “life” framework and sectorial prejudices in tourism cause gender harassment. Finally, this research proves that general stereotyping determines sectorial prejudices in the field of tourism. The practical implications could be to enhance gender equality and combat gender harassment by revealing unintentional and unobserved prejudices that occur in a general life setting and in the tourism sphere against women as neglected professionals, under the subtle and ambivalent condition of travellers, and even as objects of consumption.
DOI: 10.3390/su12229405
Source: Sustainability (Switzerland)[EISSN 2071-1050],v. 12 (22), p. 1-13, (Noviembre 2020)
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