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Title: Histopathological Differential Diagnosis of Meningoencephalitis in Cetaceans: Morbillivirus, Herpesvirus, Toxoplasma gondii, Brucella sp., and Nasitrema sp.
Authors: Sierra Pulpillo, Eva María 
Fernández Rodríguez, Antonio Jesús 
Felipe Jiménez, Idaira Del Carmen 
Succa, Daniele 
Diaz Delgado, Josue 
Puig Lozano, Raquel 
Câmara, Nakita 
Consoli, Francesco
Díaz Santana, Pablo José 
Suarez Santana, Cristian Manuel 
Arbelo Hernández, Manuel Antonio 
UNESCO Clasification: 310907 Patología
3105 Peces y fauna silvestre
240119 Zoología marina
Keywords: Brucellasp
Morbillivirus, et al
Issue Date: 2020
Journal: Frontiers in Veterinary Science 
Abstract: Infectious and inflammatory processes are among the most common causes of central nervous system involvement in stranded cetaceans. Meningitis and encephalitis are among the leading known natural causes of death in stranded cetaceans and may be caused by a wide range of pathogens. This study describes histopathological findings in post-mortem brain tissue specimens from stranded cetaceans associated with five relevant infectious agents: viruses [Cetacean Morbillivirus (CeMV) and Herpesvirus (HV); n = 29], bacteria (Brucella sp.; n = 7), protozoa (Toxoplasma gondii; n = 6), and helminths (Nasitrema sp.; n = 1). Aetiological diagnosis was established by molecular methods. Histopathologic evaluations of brain samples were performed in all the cases, and additional histochemical and/or immunohistochemical stains were carried out accordingly. Compared with those produced by other types of pathogens in our study, the characteristic features of viral meningoencephalitis (CeMV and HV) included the most severe and frequent presence of malacia, intranuclear, and/or intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, neuronal necrosis and associated neuronophagia, syncytia and hemorrhages, predominantly in the cerebrum. The characteristic features of Brucella sp. meningoencephalitis included the most severe and frequent presence of meningitis, perivascular cuffing, cerebellitis, myelitis, polyradiculoneuritis, choroiditis, ventriculitis, vasculitis, and fibrinoid necrosis of vessels. The characteristic features of T. gondii meningoencephalitis included lymphocytic and granulomatous encephalitis, tissue cysts, microgliosis, and oedema. In the case of Nasitrema sp. infection, lesions are all that we describe since just one animal was available. The results of this study are expected to contribute, to a large extent, to a better understanding of brain-pathogen-associated lesions in cetaceans.
DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2020.00650
Source: Frontiers in Veterinary Science [EISSN 2297-1769], v. 7, (Septiembre 2020)
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