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Title: Microdissection of the Human Renal Nervous System: Implications for Performing Renal Denervation Procedures
Authors: García-Touchard, Arturo
Maranillo, Eva
Mompeó Corredera, Blanca Rosa 
Sañudo, José Ramón
UNESCO Clasification: 320506 Nefrología
Keywords: Denervation
Renal Artery
Issue Date: 2020
Journal: Hypertension 
Abstract: Despite the use of renal denervation to treat hypertension, the anatomy of the renal nervous system remains poorly understood. We performed a detailed quantitative analysis of the human renal nervous system anatomy with the goal of optimizing renal denervation procedural safety and efficacy. Sixty kidneys from 30 human cadavers were systematically microdissected to quantify anatomic variations in renal nerve patterns. Contrary to current clinical perception, not all renal innervation followed the main renal artery. A significant portion of the renal nerves (late arriving nerves) frequently reached the kidney (73% of the right kidney and 53% of the left kidney) bypassing the main renal artery. The ratio of the main renal artery length/aorta-renal hilar distance proved to be a useful variable to identify the presence/absence of these late arriving nerves (odds ratio, 0.001 (95% CI, 0.00002-0.0692; P: 0.001) with a cutoff of 0.75 (sensitivity: 0.68, specificity: 0.83, area under ROC curve at threshold: 0.76). When present, polar arteries were also highly associated with the presence of late arriving nerve. Finally, the perivascular space around the proximal main renal artery was frequently occupied by fused ganglia from the solar plexus (right kidney: 53%, left kidney: 83%) and/or by the lumbar sympathetic chain (right kidney: 63%, left kidney: 60%). Both carried innervation to the kidneys but importantly also to other abdominal and pelvic organs, which can be accidentally denervated if the proximal renal artery is targeted for ablation. These novel anatomic insights may help guide future procedural treatment recommendations to increase the likelihood of safely reaching and destroying targeted nerves during renal denervation procedures.
ISSN: 1524-4563
DOI: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.120.15106
Source: Hypertension [EISSN 1524-4563], v. 76 (4), p. 1240-1246, (Octubre 2020)
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