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Title: Nutrient footprint and ecosystem services of carp production in European fishponds in contrast to EU crop and livestock sectors: European carp production and environment
Authors: Roy, Koushik
Vrba, Jaroslav
Kaushik, Sadasivam J. 
Mraz, Jan
UNESCO Clasification: 310502 Piscicultura
Keywords: Cleaner Production
Environmental Burden And Ecosystem Services
Eu Agriculture And Livestock Sectors
Nitrogen And Phosphorus, et al
Issue Date: 2020
Journal: Journal of Cleaner Production 
Abstract: There have been some arguments concerning supplementary feed (cereals) based common carp production in fishponds and water pollution, mostly in Central Europe. Using Czech Republic (top producer in EU) as a benchmark and combining data on nutrient digestibility of feedstuffs used combined with analyses of literature data, we have assessed – nutrient footprint (∼9.4–10.8 kg N ha−1, ∼2.7–3.2 kg P ha−1; 1.5–4 × < EU crop-livestock sectors); nutrient utilization efficiencies (NUEN ∼36%, NUEP ∼50%; 1.5–1.7 × > EU livestock average); autochthonous nutrient removal (∼8–9.2 kg N ha−1, 1.4–1.6 kg P ha−1); eco-cost burden (13–29 × ≪ positive services); eco-services (∼74.5–100.6 million € country−1; ∼2375 € ha−1) of carp production in Central Eastern European Region (CEER). Digestible nutrients offered by natural prey (7.9% N, 1% P on dry matter basis) to carp are ∼5–8 times higher than those provided by cereals and remains the key determinant for production. Despite this, 70–90% of nutrient footprint from feeding is contributed by cereals. Neutral footprint (∼374 kg ha−1) and exclusively natural (up to 300 kg ha−1) carp production intensities were identified, following which, commercial interest of carp farming may falter (costing intangible losses >56.5 million € in CEER), despite achieving ‘greener-goals’. Per production cycle, carp aquaculture in CEER fishponds offer at least 579 million € worth of services. Our results show that carp production in ponds have lesser nutrient burden than crop and livestock productions in EU. Existing management of fishponds ‘barely meet’ optimum P requirements of common carp and present production intensity should not be vilified as a pollution causing activity. Risks and solutions for achieving both environmental (minimized footprint) and aquaculture goals (uncompromised production) are discussed.
ISSN: 0959-6526
DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.122268
Source: Journal of Cleaner Production [ISSN 0959-6526], v. 270, 122268, (Octubre 2020).
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