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Title: Prebiotics and phytogenics functional additives in low fish meal and fish oil based diets for European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): Effects on stress and immune responses
Authors: Serradell, A.
Torrecillas Burriel, Silvia 
Makol, A.
Valdenegro, V.
Fernández Montero, A.
Acosta Arbelo, Félix Antonio 
Izquierdo López, María Soledad 
Montero Vítores, Daniel 
UNESCO Clasification: 310502 Piscicultura
Keywords: Cortisol
European Seabass
Functional Feeds
Low Fish Meal
Low Fish Oil, et al
Issue Date: 2020
Journal: Fish and Shellfish Immunology 
Abstract: The use of terrestrial raw materials to replace fish meal (FM) and fish oil (FO) in marine fish diets may affect fish growth performance and health. In the last years functional additives have been profiled as good candidates to reduce the effects on health and disease resistance derived from this replacement, via reinforcement of the fish immune system. In the present study, three isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets with low FM and FO (10% and 6% respectively) were tested based on supplementation either with 0.5% galactomannanoligosaccharides (GMOS diet) or 0.02% of a mixture of essential oils (PHYTO diet), a non-supplemented diet was defined as a control diet. Fish were fed the experimental diets in triplicate for 9 weeks and then they were subjected to a stress by confinement as a single challenge (C treatment) or combined with an experimental intestinal infection with Vibrio anguillarum (CI treatment). Along the challenge test, selected stress and immunological parameters were evaluated at 2, 24 and 168h after C or CI challenges. As stress indicators, circulating plasma cortisol and glucose concentrations were analyzed as well as the relative gene expression of cyp11b hydroxylase, hypoxia inducible factor, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, heat shock protein 70 and heat shock protein 90 (cyp11b, hif-1α, StAR, hsp70 and hsp90). As immune markers, serum and skin mucus lysozyme, bactericidal and peroxidase activities were measured, as well as gene expression of Caspase-3 (casp-3) and interleukin 1β (il-1ß). The use of functional additives induced a significant (p < 0.05) reduction of circulating plasma cortisol concentration when confinement was the unique challenge test applied. Supplementation of PHYTO induced a down-regulation of cyp11b, hif-1α, casp-3 and il-1β gene expression 2h after stress test, whereas StAR expression was significantly (p < 0.05) up-regulated. However, when combination of confinement stress and infection was applied (CI treatment), the use of PHYTO significantly (p < 0.05) down-regulated StAR and casp-3 gene expression 2h after challenge test, denoting that PHYTO diet reinforced fish capacity of stress response via protection of head kidney leucocytes from stress-related apoptotic processes, with lower caspase-3 gene expression and a higher il-1β gene expression when an infection occurs. Additionally, dietary supplementation with GMOS and PHYTO compounds increased fish serum lysozyme after infection. Both functional additives entailed a better capability of the animals to cope with infection in European sea bass when fed low FM and FO diets.
ISSN: 1095-9947
DOI: 10.1016/j.fsi.2020.03.016
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology [ISSN 1095-9947], v. 100, p. 219-229
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