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Title: Higher socioeconomic status is related to healthier levels of fatness and fitness already at 3 to 5 years of age: The PREFIT project: Relation between socioeconomic status, fatness and fitness in preschoolers
Authors: Merino-De Haro, Ignacio
Mora-Gonzalez, Jose
Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina
Borras, Pere A.
Benito, Pedro J.
Chiva-Bartoll, Oscar
Torrijos-Niño, Coral
Samaniego-Sánchez, Cristina
Quesada-Granados, José Javier
Sánchez-Delgado, Alejandro
Dorado García, Cecilia 
García-Martínez, José M.
Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán
Labayen, Idoia
Ortega, Francisco B.
UNESCO Clasification: 241106 Fisiología del ejercicio
Keywords: Body composition
Physical fitness
Socioeconomic factors
Issue Date: 2019
Journal: Journal of Sports Sciences 
Abstract: This study aimed to analyse the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and fatness and fitness in preschoolers. 2,638 preschoolers (3–5 years old; 47.2% girls) participated. SES was estimated from the parental educational and occupational levels, and the marital status. Fatness was assessed by body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Physical fitness components were assessed using the PREFIT battery. Preschoolers whose parents had higher educational levels had lower fatness (P < 0.05). BMI significantly differed across occupational levels of each parent (P < 0.05) and WHtR across paternal levels (P = 0.004). Musculoskeletal fitness was different across any SES factor (P < 0.05), except handgrip across paternal occupational levels (P ≥ 0.05). Preschoolers with high paternal occupation had higher speed/agility (P = 0.005), and those with high or low maternal education had higher VO 2 max (P = 0.046). Odds of being obese and having low musculoskeletal fitness was lower as SES was higher (P < 0.05). Those with married parents had higher cardiorespiratory fitness than single-parent ones (P = 0.010). School-based interventions should be aware of that children with low SES are at a higher risk of obesity and low fitness already in the first years of life.
ISSN: 0264-0414
DOI: 10.1080/02640414.2018.1558509
Source: Journal of Sports Sciences [ISSN 0264-0414], v. 37 (12), p. 1327-1337
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