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Title: Significant Release of Dissolved Inorganic Nutrients From the Shallow Submarine Volcano Tagoro (Canary Islands) Based on Seven-Year Monitoring
Authors: González Vega, Alba 
Fraile Nuez,Eugenio 
Santana-Casiano, J. Magdalena 
González-Dávila, Melchor 
Escánez-Pérez, José
Gómez-Ballesteros, María
Tello, Olvido
Arrieta, Jesús M.
Keywords: Canary Islands
Hydrothermal Vents
Inorganic Nutrients
Nutrient Fluxes
Tagoro Submarine Volcano
Issue Date: 2020
Project: "Volcanic Eruption At El Hierro Island, Sensitivity And Recovery Of The Marine Ecosystem" 
VULCANO-II (CTM2014-51837-R) 
BIMBACHE (IEO-2011-2012) 
RAPROCAN-III (IEO-2010-2012) 
VULCANA-I (IEO-2015-2017) 
VULCANA-II (IEO-2018-2020) 
Journal: Frontiers in Marine Science 
Abstract: Tagoro, the shallow submarine volcano that erupted south of El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain) in October 2011, has been intensely monitored for over 7 years, from the early eruptive stage to the current degassing stage characterized by moderate hydrothermal activity. Here, we present a detailed study of the emissions of inorganic macronutrients (NO2– + NO3–, PO4, and Si(OH)4) comprising a dataset of over 3300 samples collected through three different sampling methodologies. Our results show a significant nutrient enrichment throughout the whole studied period, up to 8.8-fold (nitrate), 4.0-fold (phosphate), and 16.3-fold (silicate) in the water column, and larger enrichments of phosphate (10.5-fold) and silicate (325.4-fold), but not of nitrate, in the samples collected directly from the vents. We also provide some preliminary results showing ammonium (NH4+) concentrations up to 1.97 μM in the vent fluids as compared to 0.02 μM in the surrounding waters. Nutrient fluxes from the volcano during the degassing stage were estimated as 3.19 ± 1.17 mol m–2 year–1 (NO2– + NO3–), 0.02 ± 0.01 mol m–2 year–1 (PO4), and 0.60 ± 1.35 mol m–2 year–1 (Si(OH)4), comparable to other important nutrient sources in the region such as fluxes from the NW-African upwelling. Nutrient ratios were affected, with a minimum (NO3– + NO2–):PO4 ratio of 2.36:1; moreover, a linear correlation between silicate and temperature enabled the use of this nutrient as a mixing tracer. This study sheds light on how shallow hydrothermal systems impact the nutrient-poor upper waters of the ocean.
ISSN: 2296-7745
DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00829
Source: Frontiers in Marine Science [ISSN 2296-7745], v. 6, article 829
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