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Title: Effects of dietary arachidonic acid in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) distal intestine lipid classes and gut health
Authors: Rivero-Ramírez, F. 
Torrecillas, S. 
Betancor, M. B.
Izquierdo, M. S. 
Caballero, M. J. 
Montero, D. 
UNESCO Clasification: 310502 Piscicultura
Keywords: Aquaculture
Arachidonic Acid
Dicentrarchus Labrax
Distal Intestine
Gut Health, et al
Issue Date: 2020
Project: Complementos Dieteticos en la Utilización de Lipidos Alternativos Al Aceite de Pescado en Acuicultura Marina: Herramienta Para Maximizar El Potencial de Resistencia A Patogenos 
Journal: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 
Abstract: The use of low fishmeal/fish oil in marine fish diets affects dietary essential fatty acids (EFAs) composition and concentration and, subsequently, may produce a marginal deficiency of those fatty acids with a direct impact on the fish intestinal physiology. Supplementation of essential fatty acids is necessary to cover the requirements of the different EFAs, including the ones belonging to the n-6 series, such as arachidonic acid (ARA). ARA, besides its structural role in the configuration of the lipid classes of the intestine, plays an important role in the functionality of the gut-associated immune tissue (GALT). The present study aimed to test five levels of dietary ARA (ARA0.5 (0.5%), ARA1 (1%), ARA2 (2%), ARA4 (4%), and ARA6 (6%)) for European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles in order to determine (a) its effect in selected distal intestine (DI) lipid classes composition and (b) how these changes affected gut bacterial translocation rates and selected GALT-related gene expression pre and post challenge. No differences were found between distal intestines of fish fed with the graded ARA levels in total neutral lipids and total polar lipids. However, DI of fish fed with the ARA6 diet presented a higher (P < 0.05) level of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and sphingomyelin (SM) than those DI of fish fed with the ARA0.5 diet. In general terms, fatty acid profiles of DI lipid classes mirrored those of the diet dietary. Nevertheless, selective retention of ARA could be observed in glycerophospholipids when dietary levels are low (diet ARA0.5), as reflected in the higher glycerophospholipids-ARA/dietary-ARA ratio for those animals. Increased ARA dietary supplementation was inversely correlated with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) content in lipid classes, when data from fish fed with the diets with the same basal composition (diets ARA1 to ARA6). ARA supplementation did not affect intestinal morphometry, goblet cell number, or fish survival, in terms of gut bacterial translocation, along the challenge test. However, after the experimental infection with Vibrio anguillarum, the relative expression of cox-2 and il-1β were upregulated (P < 0.05) in DI of fish fed with the diets ARA0.5 and ARA2 compared with fish fed with the rest of the experimental diets. Although dietary ARA did not affect fish survival, it altered the fatty acid composition of glycerophospholipids and the expression of pro-inflammatory genes after infection when included at the lowest concentration, which could be compromising the physical and the immune functionality of the DI, denoting the importance of ARA supplementation when low FO diets are used for marine fish.
ISSN: 0920-1742
DOI: 10.1007/s10695-019-00744-0
Source: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry [ISSN 0920-1742], v. 46, p. 681–697
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