Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10553/69987
Title: High plasma glutamate and low glutamine-to-glutamate ratio are associated with type 2 diabetes: Case-cohort study within the PREDIMED trial
Authors: Liu, Xiaoran
Zheng, Yan
Guasch-Ferré, Marta
Ruiz-Canela, Miguel
Toledo, Estefanía
Clish, Clary
Liang, Liming
Razquin, Cristina
Corella, Dolores
Estruch, Ramón
Fito, Montserrat
Gómez-Gracia, Enrique
Arós, Fernando
Ros, Emilio
Lapetra, José
Fiol, Miquel
Serra Majem, Luis 
Papandreou, Christopher
Martínez-González, Miguel A.
Hu, Frank B.
Salas-Salvadó, Jordi
UNESCO Clasification: 32 Ciencias médicas
Keywords: Evoo
Extra Virgin Olive Oil
Glutamate
Glutamine
Meddiet: Mediterranean Diet, et al
Issue Date: 2019
Journal: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases 
Abstract: Background and aims: Glutamate, glutamine are involved in energy metabolism, and have been related to cardiometabolic disorders. However, their roles in the development of type-2 diabetes (T2D) remain unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of Mediterranean diet on associations between glutamine, glutamate, glutamine-to-glutamate ratio, and risk of new-onset T2D in a Spanish population at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods and results: The present study was built within the PREDIMED trial using a case-cohort design including 892 participants with 251 incident T2D cases and 641 non-cases. Participants (mean age 66.3 years; female 62.8%) were non diabetic and at high risk for CVD at baseline. Plasma levels of glutamine and glutamate were measured at baseline and after 1-year of intervention. Higher glutamate levels at baseline were associated with increased risk of T2D with a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.78 (95% CI, 1.43–5.41, P for trend = 0.0002). In contrast, baseline levels of glutamine (HR: 0.64, 95% CI, 0.36–1.12; P for trend = 0.04) and glutamine-to-glutamate ratio (HR: 0.31, 95% CI, 0.16–0.57; P for trend = 0.0001) were inversely associated with T2D risk when comparing extreme quartiles. The two Mediterranean diets (MedDiet + EVOO and MedDiet + mixed nuts) did not alter levels of glutamine and glutamate after intervention for 1 year. However, MedDiet mitigated the positive association between higher baseline plasma glutamate and T2D risk (P for interaction = 0.01). Conclusion: Higher levels of glutamate and lower levels of glutamine were associated with increased risk of T2D in a Spanish population at high risk for CVD. Mediterranean diet might mitigate the association between the imbalance of glutamine and glutamate and T2D risk. This trial is registered at http://www.controlled-trials.com, ISRCTN35739639.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10553/69987
ISSN: 0939-4753
DOI: 10.1016/j.numecd.2019.06.005
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases [ISSN 0939-4753], v. 29 (10), p. 1040-1049
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