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Title: Insights into dolphins' immunology: Immuno-phenotypic study on mediterranean and atlantic stranded cetaceans
Authors: Centelleghe, Cinzia
Da Dalt, Laura
Marsili, Letizia
Zanetti, Rossella
Fernández Rodríguez, Antonio Jesús 
Arbelo Hernández, Manuel Antonio 
Sierra Pulpillo, Eva María 
Castagnaro, Massimo
Di Guardo, Giovanni
Mazzariol, Sandro
UNESCO Clasification: 310907 Patología
2412 Inmunología
3105 Peces y fauna silvestre
Keywords: Bottlenose Dolphin
Striped Dolphin
Issue Date: 2019
Journal: Frontiers in Immunology 
Abstract: Immunology of marine mammals is a relatively understudied field and its monitoring plays an important role in the individual and group management of these animals, along with an increasing value as an environmental health indicator. This study was aimed at implementing the knowledge on the immune response in cetaceans stranded along the Italian coastline to provide a baseline useful for assessing the immune status of bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus) and striped (Stenella coeruleoalba) dolphins. In particular, since the Mediterranean Sea is considered a heavily polluted basin, a comparison with animals living in open waters such as the Atlantic Ocean was made. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded spleen, thymus, and lymph node tissues from 16 animals stranded along Italian and 11 cetaceans from the Canary Island shores were sampled within 48 h from death. Information regarding stranding sites, gender, and age as well as virologic, microbiological, and parasitological investigations, and the cause and/or the death mechanism were also collected in order to carry out statistical analyses. Selected tissues were routinely stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) and with immunohistochemical techniques (IHC). For IHC analysis, anti-human CD5 monoclonal mouse antibody to identify T lymphocytes, CD20 monoclonal mouse antibody for the identification of mature B lymphocytes and HLA-DR antigen (alpha-chain) monoclonal mouse antibody for the identification of the major histocompatibility complex type II were previously validated for both species by Western-blotting technique. T-test method applied to quantitative evaluation of IHC positive cells showed a significant relationship between the number of (expression) of CD20 stained lymphocytes and normal and hypoplastic lymph nodes, respectively. No other significant correlations were noticed. Analyses for organochlorines (OC) compounds were performed in animals (no5) having frozen blubber tissue available. A simple linear regression was calculated to predict if the amount of OCs could influence the number of inflammatory cell subpopulations and a moderate negative correlation was found between the presence of high quantity of contaminants and the number of T lymphocytes. Future analysis should be aimed to understand the effect of the major immunomodulatory pathogens on sub-populations of B and T cells.
ISSN: 1664-3224
DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.00888
Source: Frontiers In Immunology [ISSN 1664-3224],v. 10, 888
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