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Title: Dietary diversity and nutritional adequacy among an older Spanish population with metabolic syndrome in the PREDIMED-plus study: A cross-sectional analysis
Authors: Cano-Ibáñez, Naomi
Gea, Alfredo
Martínez-González, Miguel A.
Salas-Salvadó, Jordi
Corella, Dolores
Zomeño, M. Dolors
Romaguera, Dora
Vioque, Jesús
Aros, Fernando
Wärnberg, Julia
Martínez, J. Alfredo
Serra Majem, Luis 
Estruch, Ramón
Tinahones, Francisco J.
Lapetra, José
Pintó, Xavier
Tur, Josep A.
García-Ríos, Antonio
Riquelme-Gallego, Blanca
Delgado-Rodríguez, Miguel
Matía, Pilar
Daimiel, Lidia
Martín, Vicente
Vidal, Josep
Vázquez, Clotilde
Ros, Emilio
Buil-Cosiales, Pilar
Díaz-López, Andrés
Fernández-Carrión, Rebeca
Fitó, Montserrat
Konieczna, Jadwiga
Notario-Barandiaran, Leyre
Alonso-Gómez, Ángel M.
Contreras-Fernández, Eugenio
Abete, Itziar
Sánchez Villegas, Almudena 
Casas, Rosa
Muñoz-Garach, Araceli
Santos-Lozano, José Manuel
Gallardo-Alfaro, Laura
Basora, Josep
Portoles, Olga
Muñoz, Miguel Ángel
Moñino, Manuel
Gisbert, Salvador Miralles
Rodríguez, Anai Moreno
Ruiz-Canela, Miguel
Galindo, Antoni Palau
Pérez-Vega, Karla Alejandra
Bueno-Cavanillas, Aurora
UNESCO Clasification: 3206 Ciencias de la nutrición
Keywords: Aging
Dietary Diversity
Metabolic Syndrome
Nutrient Adequacy
Predimed-Plus Study
Issue Date: 2019
Journal: Nutrients 
Abstract: Dietary guidelines emphasize the importance of a varied diet to provide an adequate nutrient intake. However, an older age is often associated with consumption of monotonous diets that can be nutritionally inadequate, increasing the risk for the development or progression of diet-related chronic diseases, such as metabolic syndrome (MetS). To assess the association between dietary diversity (DD) and nutrient intake adequacy and to identify demographic variables associated with DD, we cross-sectionally analyzed baseline data from the PREDIMED-Plus trial: 6587 Spanish adults aged 55–75 years, with overweight/obesity who also had MetS. An energy-adjusted dietary diversity score (DDS) was calculated using a 143-item validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Nutrient inadequacy was defined as an intake below 2/3 of the dietary reference intake (DRI) forat least four of 17 nutrients proposed by the Institute of Medicine (IOM). Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between DDS and the risk of nutritionally inadequate intakes. In the higher DDS quartile there were more women and less current smokers. Compared with subjects in the highest DDS quartile, those in the lowest DDS quartile had a higher risk of inadequate nutrient intake: odds ratio (OR) = 28.56 (95% confidence interval (CI) 20.80–39.21). When we estimated food varietyfor each of the food groups, participants in the lowest quartile had a higher risk of inadequate nutrient intake for the groups of vegetables, OR = 14.03 (95% CI 10.55–18.65), fruits OR = 11.62 (95% CI 6.81–19.81), dairy products OR = 6.54 (95% CI 4.64–9.22) and protein foods OR = 6.60 (95% CI 1.96–22.24). As DDS decreased, the risk of inadequate nutrients intake rose. Given the impact of nutrient intake adequacy on the prevention of non-communicable diseases, health policies should focus on the promotion of a healthy varied diet, specifically promoting the intake of vegetables and fruit among population groups with lower DDS such as men, smokers or widow(er)s.
ISSN: 2072-6643
DOI: 10.3390/nu11050958
Source: Nutrients [ISSN 2072-6643], v. 11 (5)
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