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Title: Evaluating European LIFE conservation projects: Improvements in survival of an endangered vulture
Authors: Badia-Boher, Jaume Adrià
Sanz-Aguilar, Ana
de la Riva, Manuel
Gangoso, Laura
van Overveld, Thijs
García-Alfonso, Marina
Pérez Luzardo, Octavio Luis 
Suárez Pérez, Alejandro 
Donázar, José Antonio
UNESCO Clasification: 310512 Ordenación y conservación de la fauna silvestre
240106 Ecología animal
Keywords: Capture–Recapture
Conservation Programme Success
Egyptian Vulture
Environmental Education
Long-Term Monitoring, et al
Issue Date: 2019
Journal: Journal of Applied Ecology 
Abstract: Long-lived avian scavengers are threatened worldwide and thus, are common targets of conservation plans. However, scientific evidence of both the factors limiting populations and effectiveness of management actions are greatly needed in order to develop more efficient and successful conservation strategies. We assessed the effectiveness of conservation actions applied within a LIFE-Nature project aimed at improving the long-term survival of the critically endangered Canarian Egyptian vulture: including education campaigns for public awareness and control of illegal poisoning and the modification of power lines to reduce the risk of accidents. We formulated a multievent capture–mark–recapture model to obtain estimates of survival for juvenile, subadult and adult birds accounting for probabilities of resight, recovery and losses of metal and colour rings. Models supported a substantial enhancement in survival for subadult and adult birds and a moderate improvement for juveniles after the implementation of LIFE actions. Ring loss probabilities became notably high in the middle to long term. Poisoning events became very rare after LIFE was implemented, suggesting a positive effect of environmental education and awareness campaigns. Entanglements and collisions in power lines were also efficiently mitigated. Instead, electrocutions became the most identified cause of death in the post-LIFE stage. Synthesis and applications. Our results highlight the improvement of survival in a threatened island vulture population after the implementation of a European LIFE conservation project. On small islands, with small human populations and few stakeholders, education and awareness campaigns can be especially effective for biodiversity conservation. We also demonstrate the need to complement conservation programmes with long-term monitoring, which is essential to evaluate the effectiveness of actions, especially for long-lived species.
ISSN: 0021-8901
DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.13350
Source: Journal of Applied Ecology [ISSN 0021-8901],v. 56 (5), p. 1210-1219
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