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Title: Sustainable Irrigation Using Non-Conventional Resources: What has Happened after 30 Years Regarding Boron Phytotoxicity?
Authors: Mendoza-Grimon, Vanessa 
Ramon Fernandez-Vera, Juan 
Hernandez Moreno,Jose Manuel 
Palacios Díaz, María del Pino 
UNESCO Clasification: 3103 Agronomía
330810 Tecnología de aguas residuales
Keywords: Irrigation
Reverse osmosis
Water resources
Desalinated water, et al
Issue Date: 2019
Project: Reutilización de Aguas Residuales Para El Desarrollo Sostenible: Producción Forrajera y Bioenergética 
Adaptación al cambio climático en la Macaronesia a través del uso eficiente del agua y su reutilización ItemCrisRefDisplayStrategy.project.deleted.icon
Journal: Water (Switzerland) 
Abstract: In the Canary Islands, there is a hydrological imbalance between water consumption and renewable water availability. To provide more water resources, reverse osmosis (RO) from seawater is used. As boron (B) contents in irrigation water higher than 0.7 mg/L may be dangerous for sensible plants, B concentration in RO water (ROW) may be one of the key factors of irrigation sustainability. Some orchards have been studied after they have used drip irrigation using different water qualities for 30 years. B in water, soils, and banana leaves was determined to check the sustainability of ROW irrigation. When irrigating with ROW, in which B concentration varies between 1.0 and 1.4 mgB/L, B content in banana soils seems to be stabilized at 5-7 mg/kg, and no toxicity has been observed in banana leaves. The proper water and soil management used by the local farmers probably prevent the accumulation of higher B levels in soils. Considering water consumption of 9000 m(3).ha(-1).year(-1), 8-11 kgB.ha(-1).year(-1) is applied to the soil. The banana plant removes approximately 1 kgB.ha(-1).year(-1); therefore, only 10% of the total B added gets exported. This raises the following question: is it better to use membranes that are able to reduce B in ROW, increase the leaching fraction, or blend water?
ISSN: 2073-4441
DOI: 10.3390/w11091952
Source: Water [ISSN 2073-4441],v. 11 (9), 1952
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