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Title: Transferring and implementing the general dynamic model of oceanic island biogeography at the scale of island fragments: The roles of geological age and topography in plant diversification in the Canaries
Authors: Otto, Rüdiger
Whittaker, Robert J.
von Gaisberg, Markus
Stierstorfer, Christian
Naranjo-Cigala, Agustin 
Steinbauer, Manuel J.
Borregaard, Michael K.
Arévalo, José Ramón
Garzón-Machado, Víctor
del Arco, Marcelino
Fernández-Palacios, José María
UNESCO Clasification: 250501-1 Biogeografía botánica
Keywords: Canary Islands
Endemic plants
Environmental heterogeneity
General dynamic model
Island biogeography, et al
Issue Date: 2016
Journal: Journal of Biogeography 
Abstract: Aim: The general dynamic model (GDM) of oceanic island biogeography integrates rates of immigration, speciation and extinction in relation to a humped trajectory of island area, species carrying capacity and topographic complexity through time, based on a simplified island ontogeny. In practice, many islands have more complex ontogenies, featuring surfaces of varying age. Here, we extend the GDM to apply at a local scale within islands, and test the predictions analytically within individual islands. Location: El Hierro, La Palma and Tenerife (Canary Islands). Methods: Following the GDM logic, we derive predictions for the distributions and richness of single island endemics (SIEs) across island landscapes of different age. We test these predictions by means of generalized linear models and binominal tests using gridded species occurrence data for vascular plant SIE species and a set of climatic, topographic and terrain age variables. We also examined phylogenetic divergence times for a subset of endemic lineages. Results: Geological age, in interaction with slope, and topographic variables, best explained SIE richness at the landscape scale. About 70% of SIEs had ranges strongly biased to, or largely restricted to old terrain. Available phylogenetic divergence times of SIEs of radiated plant lineages suggested an origin on the older parts of the islands. Metrics of anthropogenic disturbance and habitat availability were unrelated to the observed SIE pattern. Main conclusions: Our findings support the hypothesis that SIEs have evolved and accumulated on older and topographically complex terrain, while colonization processes predominate on the youngest parts. These results imply that evolutionary processes shape species distributions at the landscape scale within islands. This opens the perspective of extending the GDM framework to understand processes at a local scale within individual islands.
ISSN: 0305-0270
DOI: 10.1111/jbi.12684
Source: Journal Of Biogeography[ISSN 0305-0270],v. 43 (5), p. 911-922
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