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Title: Design and application of model for training ultrasound-guided vascular cannulation in pediatric patients
Authors: Pérez-Quevedo, O.
López-Álvarez, J. M.
Limiñana Cañal, Jose Maria 
Loro-Ferrer, J. F. 
UNESCO Clasification: 32 Ciencias médicas
320110 Pediatría
Keywords: Central Venous Access
Catheter Placement
Simulator, et al
Issue Date: 2016
Journal: Medicina Intensiva 
Abstract: Central vascular cannulation is not a risk-free procedure, especially in pediatric patients. Newborn and infants are small and low-weighted, their vascular structures have high mobility because of tissue laxity and their vessels are superficial and with small diameter. These characteristics, together with the natural anatomical variability and poor collaboration of small children, make this technique more difficult to apply. Therefore, ultrasound imaging is increasingly being used to locate vessels and guide vascular access in this population.Objective: (a) To present a model that simulates the vascular system for training ultrasound guided vascular access in pediatrics patients; (b) to ultrasound-guided vascular cannulation in the model.Results: The model consisted of two components: (a) muscular component: avian muscle, (b) vascular component: elastic tube-like structure filled with fluid. 864 ecoguided punctures was realized in the model at different vessel depth and gauge measures were simulated, for two medical operators with different degree of experience. The average depth and diameter of vessel cannulated were 1.16 (0.42)cm and 0.43 (0.1)cm, respectively. The average number of attempts was of 1.22 (0.62). The percentage of visualization of the needle was 74%. The most frequent maneuver used for the correct location, was the modification of the angle of the needle and the relocation of the guidewire in 24% of the cases. The average time for the correct cannulations was 41 (35.8) s. The more frequent complications were the vascular perforation (11.9%) and the correct vascular puncture without possibility of introducing the guidewire (1.2%). The rate of success was 96%.Conclusions: The model simulates the anatomy (vascular and muscular structures) of a pediatric patient. It is cheap models, easily reproducible and a useful tool for training in ultrasound guided puncture and cannulation.
ISSN: 0210-5691
DOI: 10.1016/j.medin.2015.11.005
Source: Medicina Intensiva[ISSN 0210-5691],v. 40, p. 364-370 (Enero 2016)
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