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Title: Neonatal viability evaluation by Apgar score in puppies delivered by cesarean section in two brachycephalic breeds (English and French bulldog)
Authors: Batista Arteaga, Miguel 
Monzón Moreno, Carmelo 
Vilar Guereño, José Manuel 
Golding, M.
Brito, C.
Santana, M.
Alamo, D.
UNESCO Clasification: 310411 Reproducción
Keywords: Brachycephalic breed
Apgar score
Issue Date: 2014
Journal: Animal Reproduction Science 
Abstract: This study tried to define neonatal viability after cesarean section in brachycephalic breeds and the efficacy of an adapted Apgar test to assess newborn survival. Data from 44 cesarean sections and 302 puppies were included. Before surgery (59–61 days after ovulation), an ultrasound evaluation defined the fetal biparietal diameter (BPD). Immediately after the uterine delivery, the pups were evaluated to detect birth defects and then, a modified Apgar score (range: 0–10) was used to define neonatal health at 5 min (Apgar 1) and 60 min (Apgar 2) after neonatal delivery; puppies were classified into three categories: critical neonates (score: 0–3), moderate viability neonates (score: 4–6) and normal viability neonates (score: 7–10). Mean (±SEM) value of BPD was 30.8 ± 0.1 mm and 28.9 ± 0.1 mm in English and French Bull-Dog fetus, respectively. The incidence of spontaneous neonatal mortality (4.98%, 14/281) and birth defects (6.95%) were not influenced by the sex; however, congenital anomalies and neonatal mortality were higher (p < 0.01) in those litters with a greater number of neonates. In Apgar 1, the percentage of critical neonates, moderate viability neonates and normal viability neonates were 20.5%, 46.3% and 33.1% respectively; sixty minutes after birth, the critical neonates only represented 10.3% of the total puppies. Almost all neonates (238/239) showing moderate or normal viability at Apgar 1, survived for the first 24 h after birth. The results of the study showed a direct relationship (p < 0.01) between the Apgar score and neonatal viability. Therefore, the routine performance of the Apgar score would appear to be essential in the assessment of the status of brachycephalic breed puppies.
ISSN: 0378-4320
DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2014.03.003
Source: Animal Reproduction Science [ISSN 0378-4320], v. 146 (3-4), p. 218-226
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