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Title: Living at high altitude in combination with sea-level sprint training increases hematological parameters but does not improve performance in rats
Authors: Martinez-Bello, Vladimir Essau
Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian
Nascimento, Ana Lucia
Pallardo, Federico V.
Ibañez-Sania, Sandra
Olaso-Gonzalez, Gloria
Calbet, Jose Antonio 
Gomez-Cabrera, Mari Carmen
Viña, Jose
UNESCO Clasification: 241106 Fisiología del ejercicio
Keywords: Hematocrit
Maximal aerobic velocity
Normobaric hypoxic chamber
Issue Date: 2011
Publisher: 1439-6319
Journal: European Journal of Applied Physiology 
Abstract: The regimen of aerobic training at sea level with recovery at high altitude has been used by athletes to improve performance. However, little is known about the effects of hypoxia when combined with sprint interval training on performance. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of a “living high-sprint training low” strategy on hemoglobin, hematocrit and erythropoietin levels in rats. We also wanted to test whether the addition of a hypoxic stress to the program of daily treadmill running at high speeds induces expressional adaptations in skeletal muscle and affects performance. The protein content of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), cytochrome C, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK1), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and citrate synthase activity were determined in different muscle fiber types in our animals (red and white gastrocnemius muscle). We also determined the maximal aerobic velocity (MAV) before and after the training period. A total of 24 male Wistar rats (3 month old) were randomly divided into four experimental groups: the normoxic control group (n = 6), the normoxic trained group (n = 6), the hypoxic control group (12 h pO2 12%/12 h pO2 21%) (n = 6) and the hypoxic trained group (12 h pO2 12%/12 h pO2 21%). Living in normobaric hypoxia condition for 21 days significantly increased hemoglobin, hematocrit and erythropoietin levels in both the rest and the trained groups. The trained animals (normoxia and hypoxia) significantly increased their maximal aerobic velocity. No changes were found in the skeletal muscle in PGC-1α, cytochrome C, PDK1, HSP70, MnSOD protein content and in the citrate synthase activity in any experimental group. Regardless of whether it is combined with sprint interval training or not, after 21 days of living at high altitude we found a significant increase in the hematological values determined in our study. However, contrary to our starting hypothesis, the combination of normobaric hypoxia and sprint training did not improve MAV in our animals.
ISSN: 1439-6319
DOI: 10.1007/s00421-010-1740-z
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology[ISSN 1439-6319],v. 111, p. 1147-1156
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