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Title: Disparities in food habits in Europe: Systematic review of educational and occupational differences in the intake of fat
Authors: López-Azpiazu, I.
Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena 
Johansson, Lars
Petkeviciene, J.
Prättälä, Ritva
Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel
Groth, Margit
Hupkens, Christianne
Jansson, Sören
Kasmel, Anu
Klumbiené, Jurate
Martínez, J. Alfredo
Naska, Ada
Nelson, Michael
Oltersdorf, Ulrich
Remaut-De Winter, Anne Marie
Roos, Gun
Sekula, Wlodzimierz
Trichopoulou, Antonia
Trygg, Kerstin
Friel, Sharon
Delgado-Rodríguez, Miguel
Llopis, Juan
Barricarte, Aurelio
UNESCO Clasification: 32 Ciencias médicas
3212 Salud pública
Keywords: Dietary fat
Issue Date: 2003
Journal: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 
Abstract: Background  A higher socio-economic level is associated with healthier dietary habits. Nevertheless, socio-economic differences in the intake of fat have not consistently been reported in Europe. The objective of our study was to systematically assess differences in total fat (TF) intake and saturated fat (SF) intake across social groups. Methods  Representative samples from nine European countries were used to perform a meta-analysis of surveys between 1985–1999, including both published and nonpublished results. Results  Because important heterogeneity was found and the estimates for TF from Spain and Estonia were different from all others, we calculated the differences in intake excluding these two countries. We found a lower TF intake in the highest (versus the lowest) occupational level both for men (difference: −1.1% of total energy intake; 95% CI: −1.3 to −0.8%) and women (difference: −0.9%; 95% CI: −1.2 to −0.6%) when Estonia and Spain were excluded. Conclusion  European surveys indicate that people in the lowest category of occupation consume more fat and SF than people in the highest category.
ISSN: 0952-3871
DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-277X.2003.00466.x
Source: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics[ISSN 0952-3871],v. 16, p. 349-364
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