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Title: Effects of supercritical fluid extraction pressure on chemical composition, Microbial population, Polar lipid profile, And microstructure of goat cheese
Authors: Sánchez-Macías, D.
Laubscher, A.
Castro, N. 
Argüello, A. 
Jiménez-Flores, R.
Keywords: Fat Cheddar Cheese
Milk, et al
Issue Date: 2013
Publisher: 0022-0302
Journal: Journal of Dairy Science 
Abstract: The consumer trend for healthier food choices and preferences for low-fat products has increased the interest in low-fat cheese and nutraceutical dairy products. However, consumer preference is still for delicious food. Low- and reduced-fat cheeses are not completely accepted because of their unappealing properties compared with full-fat cheeses. The method reported here provides another option to the conventional cheese-making process to obtain lower fat cheese. Using CO2 as a supercritical fluid offers an alternative to reduce fat in cheese after ripening, while maintaining the initial characteristics and flavor. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of pressure (10, 20, 30, and 40 x 10(6) Pa) of supercritical CO2 on the amount of fat extracted, microbial population, polar lipid profile, and microstructure of 2 varieties of goat cheese: Majorero, a protected denomination of origin cheese from Spain, and goat Gouda-type cheese. The amount of fat was reduced 50 to 57% and 48 to 55% for Majorero and goat Gouda-type cheeses, respectively. Higher contents (on a fat basis) of sphingomyelin and phosphatidylcholine were found in Majorero cheese compared with control and goat Gouda-type cheeses. The microbial population was reduced after supercritical fluid extraction in both cheeses, and the lethality was higher as pressure increased in Majorero cheese, most noticeably on lactococcus and lactobacillus bacteria. The Gouda-type cheese did not contain any lactobacilli. Micrographs obtained from confocal laser scanning microscopy showed a more open matrix and whey pockets in the Majorero control cheese. This could explain the ease of extracting fat and reducing the microbial counts in this cheese after treatment with supercritical CO2. Supercritical fluid extraction with CO2 has great potential in the dairy industry and in commercial applications. The Majorero cheese obtained after the supercritical fluid extraction treatment was an excellent candidate as a low-fat goat cheese, lower in triglycerides and cholesterol but still with all the health benefits inherent in goat milk.
ISSN: 0022-0302
DOI: 10.3168/jds.2012-5473
Source: Journal of Dairy Science[ISSN 0022-0302],v. 96, p. 1325-1334
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