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Title: Cetacean morbillivirus: Current knowledge and future directions
Authors: Van Bressem, Marie Françoise
Duignan, Pádraig J.
Banyard, Ashley C.
Barbieri, Michelle M.
Colegrove, Kathleen M.
de Guise, Sylvain
Di Guardo, Giovanni
Dobson, Andrew D. M.
Domingo Álvarez, Mariano
Fauquier, Deborah A.
Fernández Rodríguez, Antonio Jesús 
Goldstein, Tracey A.
Grenfell, Bryan T.
Groch, Kátia Regina
Gulland, Frances M. D.
Jensen, Brenda A.
Jepson, Paul D.
Hall, Ailsa J.
Kuiken, Thijs
Mazzariol, Sandro
Morris, Sinead E.
Nielsen, Ole
Raga Esteve, Juan Antonio
Rowles, Teresa K.
Saliki, Jeremiah T.
Sierra Pulpillo, Eva María 
Stephens, Nahiid
Stone, Brett M.
Tomo, Ikuko
Wang, Jianning
Waltzek, Thomas B.
Wellehan, James Fx X.
UNESCO Clasification: 242091 Virología animal
310911 Virología
240118 Mamíferos
Keywords: Bottle-Nosed Dolphins
Porpoises Phocoena-Phocoena
Measles-Virus, et al
Issue Date: 2014
Journal: Viruses 
Abstract: We review the molecular and epidemiological characteristics of cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) and the diagnosis and pathogenesis of associated disease, with six different strains detected in cetaceans worldwide. CeMV has caused epidemics with high mortality in odontocetes in Europe, the USA and Australia. It represents a distinct species within the Morbillivirus genus. Although most CeMV strains are phylogenetically closely related, recent data indicate that morbilliviruses recovered from Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus), from Western Australia, and a Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis), from Brazil, are divergent. The signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) cell receptor for CeMV has been characterized in cetaceans. It shares higher amino acid identity with the ruminant SLAM than with the receptors of carnivores or humans, reflecting the evolutionary history of these mammalian taxa. In Delphinidae, three amino acid substitutions may result in a higher affinity for the virus. Infection is diagnosed by histology, immunohistochemistry, virus isolation, RT-PCR, and serology. Classical CeMV-associated lesions include bronchointerstitial pneumonia, encephalitis, syncytia, and lymphoid depletion associated with immunosuppression. Cetaceans that survive the acute disease may develop fatal secondary infections and chronic encephalitis. Endemically infected, gregarious odontocetes probably serve as reservoirs and vectors. Transmission likely occurs through the inhalation of aerosolized virus but mother to fetus transmission was also reported.
ISSN: 1999-4915
DOI: 10.3390/v6125145
Source: Viruses [ISSN 1999-4915], v. 6 (12), p. 5145-5181
Appears in Collections:Reseña
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