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Title: Magma emission rates from shallow submarine eruptions using airborne thermal imaging
Authors: Hernández, Pedro A.
Calvari, Sonia
Ramos, Antonio 
Pérez, Nemesio M.
Márquez, Antonio
Quevedo, Roberto
Barrancos, José
Padrón, Eleazar
Padilla, Germán D.
López, Dina
Rodríguez Santana, Ángel 
Melián, Gladys V.
Dionis, Samara
Rodríguez, Fátima 
Calvo, David
Spampinato, Letizia
UNESCO Clasification: 250621 Vulcanología
250616 Teledetección (Geología)
Keywords: Shallow submarine eruption
Thermal airborne monitoring
Erupted volume
Effusion rate
Issue Date: 2014
Publisher: 0034-4257
Journal: Remote Sensing of Environment 
Abstract: The effusion rate is the most important parameter to gather when a volcanic eruption occurs, because it controls the way in which a lava body grows, extends and expands, influencing its dimensional properties. Calculation of lava flow volume from thermal images collected by helicopter surveys has been largely used during the last decade for monitoring subaerial effusive eruptions. However, due to the depths where volcanic activity occurs, monitoring submarine volcanic eruptions is a very difficult task. The 2011–2012 submarine volcanic eruption at El Hierro, Canary Islands, has provided a unique and excellent opportunity to monitor eruptive processes occurring on the seabed. The use of a hand-held thermal camera during daily helicopter flights allowed us to estimate for the first time the daily and total erupted magma volumes from a submarine eruption. The volume of magma emitted during this eruption has been estimated at 300 Mm3, giving an average effusion rate of ~ 25 m3 s− 1. Thermal imagery by helicopter proved to be a fast, inexpensive, safe and reliable technique of monitoring volcanic eruptions when they occur on the shallow seabed.
ISSN: 0034-4257
DOI: 10.1016/j.rse.2014.08.027
Source: Remote Sensing of Environment [ISSN 0034-4257], v. 154, p. 219-225
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