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Title: Degradation and detoxification of 4-nitrophenol by advanced oxidation technologies and bench-scale constructed wetlands
Authors: Herrera-Melián, J. A. 
Martín-Rodríguez, A. J. 
Ortega-Méndez, A.
Arana, J. 
Doña-Rodríguez, J. M. 
Pérez-Peña, J. 
UNESCO Clasification: 330301 Tecnología de la catálisis
Keywords: 4-Nitrophenol
Constructed wetland
Fenton, et al
Issue Date: 2012
Publisher: 0301-4797
Journal: Journal of Environmental Management 
Abstract: The degradation and detoxification towards the duckweed Lemna minor of 4-nitrophenol (4NP) was studied by means of bench-scale constructed wetlands (CWs), TiO2-photocatalysis and Fenton + photoFenton reactions. The main goal of this work was to compare the three treatment techniques to evaluate their possible combination for the efficient, low cost treatment of 4NP effluents. In CWs, adsorption on the substrate of 4NP was found to achieve 34–45%. Low concentrations (up to 100 ppm) of 4NP were successfully treated by CWs in 8–12 h. The microbial degradation of 4NP started after a lag phase which was longer with higher initial concentrations of the pollutant. The greatest degradation rate was found to occur at initial concentrations of 4NP between 60 and 90 ppm. Solar TiO2-photocatalysis was faster than the CWs. The greatest removals in terms of mass of 4NP removed after 6 h of irradiation were found to occur at 4NP concentrations of about 200 ppm. Fenton reaction provided complete 4NP degradation up to 500 ppm in only 30 min but TOC was removed by only about 40%. The resulting toxicities were below 20% for initial 4NP concentrations below 300 ppm. It was the Fenton + photoFenton combination (180 min in total) that provided TOC reductions up to 80% and negative L. minor growth inhibition for almost all the 4NP concentrations tested. The combination of solar TiO2-photocatalysis (6 h) with CWs (16 h) was able to completely treat and detoxify 4NP effluents with concentrations as high as 200 ppm of the organic.
ISSN: 0301-4797
DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2012.03.044
Source: Journal of Environmental Management [ISSN 0301-4797], v. 105, p. 53-60
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