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Title: Expression of neuronal markers, synaptic proteins, and glutamine synthetase in the control and regenerating lizard visual system
Authors: Romero-Aleman, M. M. 
Monzón-Mayor, M. 
Santos, E.
Yanes, C. 
Keywords: Retinal Ganglion-Cells
Fibrillary Acidic Protein
Optic-Nerve Regeneration
Glial-Cells, et al
Issue Date: 2010
Publisher: 0021-9967
Journal: Journal of Comparative Neurology 
Abstract: Spontaneous regrowth of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons occurs after optic nerve (ON) transection in the lizard Gallotia galloti. To gain more insight into this event we performed an immunohistochemical study on selected neuron and glial markers, which proved useful for analyzing the axonal regrowth process in different regeneration models. In the control lizards, RGCs were beta-III tubulin- (Tuj1) and HuCD-positive. The vesicular glutamate transporter-1 (VGLUT1) preferentially stained RGCs and glial somata rather than synaptic layers. In contrast, SV2 and vesicular GABA/glycine transporter (VGAT) labeling was restricted to both plexiform layers. Strikingly, the strong expression of glutamine synthetase (GS) in both Muller glia processes and macroglial somata revealed a high glutamate metabolism along the visual system. Upregulation of Tuj1 and HuCD in the surviving RGCs was observed at all the timepoints studied (1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months postlesion). The significant rise of Tuj1 in the optic nerve head and optic tract (OTr) by 1 and 6 months postlesion, respectively, suggests an increase of the beta-III tubulin transport and incorporation into newly formed axons. Persistent Tuj1(+) and SV2(+) puncta and swellings were abnormally observed in putative degenerating/dystrophic fibers. Unexpectedly, neuron-like cells of obscure significance were identified in the control and regenerating ON-OTr. We conclude that: 1) the persistent upregulation of Tuj1 and HuCD favors the long-lasting axonal regrowth process; 2) the latter succeeded despite the ectopia and dystrophy of some regrowing fibers; and 3) maintenance of the glutamate-glutamine cycle contributes to the homeostasis and plasticity of the system. J. Comp. Neurol. 518:4067-4087, 2010. (C) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
ISSN: 0021-9967
DOI: 10.1002/cne.22444
Source: Journal Of Comparative Neurology[ISSN 0021-9967],v. 518 (19), p. 4067-4087
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