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Title: Determination of Cystatin C in human serum by isotope dilution mass spectrometry using mass overlapping peptides
Authors: González-Antuña, Ana 
Rodríguez-González, Pablo
Ohlendorf, Rudiger
Henrion, André
Delatour, Vincent
García Alonso, J. Ignacio
UNESCO Clasification: 32 Ciencias médicas
2403 Bioquímica
Keywords: Cystatin C
Clinical biomarker
Isotope dilution mass spectrometry
Mass overlapping peptides
Selected reaction monitoring, et al
Issue Date: 2014
Journal: Journal of Proteomics 
Abstract: We propose a peptide-based isotope dilution mass spectrometry approach for Cystatin C determination in human serum samples, a clinical marker for renal status for which backup by a mass spectrometry based primary method has been missing so far. In contrast to common protocols, the isotope labelled version of the proteotypic signature peptide is designed such as keeping the isotopic difference as little as possible with respect to the peptide released from the protein. Peptides labelled in two 13C atoms are added to the serum samples just before proteolysis. After two steps of chromatographic purification the sample is measured by selected reaction monitoring using a LC–MS/MS. Resolution of the first quadrupole is reduced to transmit the whole parent ion cluster to the collision cell for monitoring accurate isotopic distributions of the molecular fragments. Molar fractions of labelled and natural abundance peptides are directly obtained from the experimental mass spectra of the in-cell fragment ions. Thus, the natural abundance protein concentration is obtained from the fragment-ion spectrum of the sample without resorting to extra calibration runs. Applicability of the approach is demonstrated by the measurement of the serum concentration of Cystatin C in Reference Material ERM R-DA471/IFCC and real samples. Biological significance. Cystatin C is used as an alternative marker instead of, or in combination with creatinine for non-invasive determination of glomerular filtration rates. Advantages advocating in favour of Cystatin C in diagnosis of chronic kidney diseases are the lower variability of its serum level and, particularly, virtual independence on sex, age and muscle mass. However, in order to capitalize, accuracy of measurement has to be in proportion with the predictive power of the marker. Though there are label-free methods available for screening purposes or high-throughput analysis, achieving high levels of reliability and accuracy in quantitative proteomics takes reference to isotope labelled materials. Present routine assays (mainly nephelometry, turbidimetry and ligand-binding assays) are known to leave improvement to be desired in that respect. Absolute quantification based on enzymatic signature-peptides provides a method principle establishing traceability to the International System of Units on the level of primary methods. The kind of technique is capable, by this way, of high accuracy value-assignment to matrix materials needed for calibration of present routine assays, where not completely replacing them. Cystatin C measurement by isotope dilution mass spectrometry is developed in this study with the aim of making available this tool to support diagnostics of kidney function in the same way.
ISSN: 1874-3919
DOI: 10.1016/j.jprot.2014.09.005
Source: Journal of Proteomics [ISSN 1874-3919], v. 112, p. 141-155
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