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Title: Protein synthesis signaling in skeletal muscle is refractory to whey protein ingestion during a severe energy deficit evoked by prolonged exercise and caloric restriction
Authors: Martin-Rincon, Marcos 
Pérez-Suárez, Ismael 
Pérez-López, Alberto
Ponce González,Jesús Gustavo 
Morales-Alamo, David 
de Pablos-Velasco, Pedro 
Holmberg, Hans Christer
Calbet, Jose A.L. 
UNESCO Clasification: 241106 Fisiología del ejercicio
Keywords: Fat-Free Mass
Translational Control
Leptin Receptors
Phosphorylation, et al
Issue Date: 2019
Project: Viabilidad y Sostenibilidad Del Adelgazamiento Mediante Tratamiento Intensificado en Pacientes Con Sobrepeso U Obesidad: Mecanismos Neuroendocrinos y Moleculares 
Integracion de Los Grupos de la Obesidad y El Síndrome Metabólico .... 
Journal: International Journal of Obesity 
Abstract: Background Exercise and protein ingestion preserve muscle mass during moderate energy deficits. Objective To determine the molecular mechanisms by which exercise and protein ingestion may spare muscle mass during severe energy deficit (5500 kcal/day). Design Fifteen overweight, but otherwise healthy men, underwent a pre-test (PRE), caloric restriction (3.2 kcals/kg body weight/day) + exercise (45 min one-arm cranking + 8 h walking) for 4 days (CRE), followed by a control diet (CD) for 3 days, with a caloric content similar to pre-intervention while exercise was reduced to less than 10,000 steps per day. During CRE, participants ingested either whey protein (PRO, n = 8) or sucrose (SU, n = 7) (0.8 g/kg body weight/day). Muscle biopsies were obtained from the trained and untrained deltoid, and vastus lateralis. Results Following CRE and CD, serum concentrations of leptin, insulin, and testosterone were reduced, whereas cortisol and the catabolic index (cortisol/total testosterone) increased. The Akt/mTor/p70S6K pathway and total eIF2α were unchanged, while total 4E-BP1 and Thr37/464E-BP1 were higher. After CRE, plasma BCAA and EAA were elevated, with a greater response in PRO group, and total GSK3β, pSer9GSK3β, pSer51eIF2α, and pSer51eIF2α/total eIF2α were reduced, with a greater response of pSer9GSK3β in the PRO group. The changes in signaling were associated with the changes in leptin, insulin, amino acids, cortisol, cortisol/total testosterone, and lean mass. Conclusions During severe energy deficit, pSer9GSK3β levels are reduced and human skeletal muscle becomes refractory to the anabolic effects of whey protein ingestion, regardless of contractile activity. These effects are associated with the changes in lean mass and serum insulin, testosterone, and cortisol concentrations.
ISSN: 0307-0565
DOI: 10.1038/s41366-018-0174-2
Source: International Journal of Obesity [ISSN 0307-0565], v. 43, p. 872-882
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