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Title: Screening of emerging contaminants and priority substances (2008/105/EC) in reclaimed water for irrigation and groundwater in a volcanic aquifer (Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain)
Authors: Estevez Navarro, Esmeralda 
del Carmen Cabrera, Maria 
Molina-Díaz, Antonio
Robles-Molina, José
Palacios-Díaz, María del Pino 
UNESCO Clasification: 250804 Aguas subterráneas
250605 Hidrogeología
Keywords: Solid-Phase Extraction
Pharmaceuticals, et al
Issue Date: 2012
Publisher: 0048-9697
Project: Consolider 
Valoracion de Procesos de Recarga y Descarga de Acuiferos Mediante Trazado Natural : Aplicacion en Gran Canaria 
Journal: Science of the Total Environment 
Abstract: In semiarid regions, reclaimed water can be an important source of emerging pollutants in groundwater. In Gran Canaria Island, reclaimed water irrigation has been practiced for over thirty years and currently represents 8% of water resources. The aim of this study was to monitor contaminants of emerging concern and priority substances (2008/105/EC) in a volcanic aquifer in the NE of Gran Canaria where the Bandama Golf Course has been sprinkled with reclaimed water since 1976. Reclaimed water and groundwater were monitoring quarterly from July 2009 to May 2010. Only 43% of the 183 pollutants analysed were detected: 42 pharmaceuticals, 20 pesticides, 12 polyaromatic hydrocarbons, 2 volatile organic compounds and 2 flame retardants. The most frequent compounds were caffeine, nicotine, chlorpyrifos ethyl, fluorene, phenanthrene and pyrene. Concentrations were always below 50 ng L-1, although some pharmaceuticals and one pesticide, cholrpyrifos ethyl, were occasionally detected at higher concentrations. This priority substance for surface water exceeded the maximum threshold (0.1 mu g L-1) for pesticide concentration in groundwater (2006/118/EC). Sorption and degradation processes in soil account for more compounds being detected in reclaimed water than in groundwater, and that some contaminants were always detected in reclaimed water, but never in groundwater (flufenamic acid, propyphenazone, terbutryn and diazinon). Furthermore, erythromycin was always detected in reclaimed water (exceeding occasionally 0.1 mu g L-1), and was detected only once in groundwater. In contrast, some compounds (phenylephrine, nifuroxazide and miconazole) never detected in reclaimed water, were always detected in groundwater. This fact and the same concentration range detected for the groups, regardless of the water origin, indicated alternative contaminant sources (septic tanks, agricultural practices and sewerage breaks). The widespread detection of high adsorption potential compounds, and the independence of concentration with origin and depths, indicates the existence of preferential flows phenomena as potential contamination route in volcanic fractured materials. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0048-9697
DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.06.031
Source: Science of the Total Environment [ISSN 0048-9697], v. 433, p. 538-546
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