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Title: Multivariate factorial analysis to design a robust batch leaching test to assess the volcanic ash geochemical hazard
Authors: Ruggieri, Flavia
Gil, Raúl A.
Fernandez-Turiel, Jose Luis
Saavedra, Julio
Gimeno, Domingo
Lobo, Agustin
Martinez, Luis D.
Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Alejandro 
UNESCO Clasification: 250621 Vulcanología
2503 Geoquímica
Keywords: Volcanic ash
Batch leaching
Mixed factorial design
Issue Date: 2012
Publisher: 0304-3894
Journal: Journal of Hazardous Materials 
Abstract: A method to obtain robust information on short term leaching behaviour of volcanic ashes has been developed independently on the sample age. A mixed factorial design (MFD) was employed as a multivariate strategy for the evaluation of the effects of selected control factors and their interactions (amount of sample (A), contact time (B), and liquid to solid ratio or L/S (C)) on the leaching process of selected metals (Na, K, Mg, Ca, Si, Al, V, Mn, Fe, and Co) and anions (Cl− and SO42−). Box plots of the data acquired were used to evaluate the reproducibility achieved at different experimental conditions. Both the amount of sample (A) and leaching time (B) had a significant effect on the element stripping whereas the L/S ratio influenced only few elements. The lowest dispersion values have been observed when 1.0 g was leached with an L/S ratio equal to 10, shaking during 4 h. The entire method is completed within few hours, and it is simple, feasible and reliable in laboratory conditions.
ISSN: 0304-3894
DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.01.091
Source: Journal of Hazardous Materials [ISSN 0304-3894], v. 213-214, p. 273-284
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