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Title: Differentiation at necropsy between in vivo gas embolism and putrefaction using a gas score
Authors: Bernaldo de Quiros, Yara 
Saavedra-Santana, Pedro
Møllerløkken, Andreas
Brubakk, Alf O
Jørgensen, Arve
Gonzalez-Diaz, Oscar 
Martín Barrasa, José Luis 
Fernandez, Antonio 
UNESCO Clasification: 3109 Ciencias veterinarias
Keywords: Decompression
Gas bubbles
Gas embolism
Stranded marine mammals, et al
Issue Date: 2016
Project: Agl2005-07947/Gan Valoración Del Estado Sanitario de Cetáceos de la Familia Ziphiidae ("Zifios") en El Archipiélago Canario 
Patologia Embolica " Gaseosa / Grasa " en Cetaceos 
Patología Embolico "Gaseosa/Grasa" en Cetáceos 
Journal: Research in Veterinary Science 
Abstract: Gas bubble lesions consistent with decompression sickness in marine mammals were described for the first time in beaked whales stranded in temporal and spatial association with military exercises. Putrefaction gas is a post-mortem artifact, which hinders the interpretation of gas found at necropsy. Gas analyses have been proven to help differentiating putrefaction gases from gases formed after hyperbaric exposures. Unfortunately, chemical analysis cannot always be performed. Post-mortem computed tomography is used to study gas collections, but many different logistical obstacles and obvious challenges, like the size of the animal or the transport of the animal from the stranding location to the scanner, limit its use in stranded marine mammals. In this study, we tested the diagnostic value of an index-based method for characterizing the amount and topography of gas found grossly during necropsies. For this purpose, putrefaction gases, intravenously infused atmospheric air, and gases produced by decompression were evaluated at necropsy with increased post-mortem time in New Zealand White Rabbits using a gas score index. Statistical differences (P<0.001) were found between the three experimental models immediately after death. Differences in gas score between in vivo gas embolism and putrefaction gases were found significant (P<0.05) throughout the 67h post-mortem. The gas score-index is a new and simple method that can be used by all stranding networks, which has been shown through this study to be a valid diagnostic tool to distinguish between fatal decompression, iatrogenic air embolism and putrefaction gases at autopsies.
ISSN: 0034-5288
DOI: 10.1016/j.rvsc.2016.03.007
Source: Research In Veterinary Science[ISSN 0034-5288],v. 106, p. 48-55
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