Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10553/41369
Title: Underwater electromagnetic sensor networks, Part II: Localization and network simulations
Authors: Zazo, Javier
Valcarcel Macua, Sergio
Zazo, Santiago
Pérez, Marina
Pérez-Álvarez, Iván 
Jiménez, Eugenio 
Cardona, Laura
Hernández Brito, José Joaquín 
Quevedo, Eduardo 
UNESCO Clasification: 332505 Radiocomunicaciones
120304 Inteligencia artificial
Keywords: Ad hoc networks
Castalia
Localization
Radio-frequency
Underwater communications
Issue Date: 2016
Journal: Sensors 
Abstract: In the first part of the paper, we modeled and characterized the underwater radio channel in shallow waters. In the second part, we analyze the application requirements for an underwater wireless sensor network (U-WSN) operating in the same environment and perform detailed simulations. We consider two localization applications, namely self-localization and navigation aid, and propose algorithms that work well under the specific constraints associated with U-WSN, namely low connectivity, low data rates and high packet loss probability. We propose an algorithm where the sensor nodes collaboratively estimate their unknown positions in the network using a low number of anchor nodes and distance measurements from the underwater channel. Once the network has been self-located, we consider a node estimating its position for underwater navigation communicating with neighboring nodes. We also propose a communication system and simulate the whole electromagnetic U-WSN in the Castalia simulator to evaluate the network performance, including propagation impairments (e.g., noise, interference), radio parameters (e.g., modulation scheme, bandwidth, transmit power), hardware limitations (e.g., clock drift, transmission buffer) and complete MAC and routing protocols. We also explain the changes that have to be done to Castalia in order to perform the simulations. In addition, we propose a parametric model of the communication channel that matches well with the results from the first part of this paper. Finally, we provide simulation results for some illustrative scenarios.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10553/41369
ISSN: 1424-8220
DOI: 10.3390/s16122176
Source: Sensors (Switzerland) [ISSN 1424-8220], v. 16 (12), (2176)
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