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Title: Legume consumption is inversely associated with type 2 diabetes incidence in adults: A prospective assessment from the PREDIMED study
Authors: Becerra-Tomás, N.
Díaz-López, A.
Rosique Esteban, N.
Ros, Emilio
Buil-Cosiales, P.
Corella, Dolores
Estruch, Ramón
Fitó, Montse
Serra-Majem, Lluis 
Arós, Fernando
Lamuela-Raventós, R.M.
Fiol, Miquel
Santos-Lozano, J.M.
Díez-Espino, Javier
Portolés, O.
Salas-Salvadó, Jordi
Sánchez Villegas, Almudena 
Bautista Castaño, I. 
UNESCO Clasification: 3206 Ciencias de la nutrición
Keywords: Legumes
Type 2 diabetes
Issue Date: 2018
Journal: Clinical Nutrition 
Abstract: Background & aims: Legumes, a low-energy, nutrient-dense and low glycemic index food, have shown beneficial effects on glycemic control and adiposity. As such, legumes are widely recommended in diabetic diets, even though there is little evidence that their consumption protects against type 2 diabetes. Therefore the aim of the present study was to examine the associations between consumption of total legumes and specific subtypes, and type 2 diabetes risk. We also investigated the effect of theoretically substituting legumes for other protein- or carbohydrate-rich foods.Methods: Prospective assessment of 3349 participants in the PREvencion con DIeta MEDiterranea (PREDIMED) study without type 2 diabetes at baseline. Dietary information was assessed at baseline and yearly during follow-up. We used Cox regression models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for type-2 diabetes incidence according to quartiles of cumulative average consumption of total legumes, lentils, chickpeas, dry beans and fresh peas. Results: During a median follow-up of 4.3 years, 266 new cases of type 2 diabetes occurred. Individuals in the highest quartile of total legume and lentil consumption had a lower risk of diabetes than those in the lowest quartile (HR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.96; P-trend ¼ 0.04; and HR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.46e0.98; P-trend ¼ 0.05, respectively). A borderline significant association was also observed for chickpeas consumption (HR 0.68; 95% CI: 0.46, 1.00; P-trend ¼ 0.06). Substi tutions of half a serving/day of legumes for similar servings of eggs, bread, rice or baked potato was associated with lower risk of diabetes incidence.
ISSN: 0261-5614
DOI: 10.1016/j.clnu.2017.03.015
Source: CLINICAL NUTRITION [ISSN 0261-5614], v. 37 (3), p. 906-913
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