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Title: Study on the removal of hormones from domestic wastewaters with lab-scale constructed wetlands with different substrates and flow directions
Authors: Herrera-Melián, JA 
Guedes-Alonso, Rayco 
Borreguero Fabelo, Alejandro
Santana-Rodríguez, José Juan 
Sosa-Ferrera Z. 
UNESCO Clasification: 251002 Oceanografía química
3308 Ingeniería y tecnología del medio ambiente
Keywords: Hormone residues
Constructed wetland
Palm mulch
Horizontal flow
Vertical flow
Issue Date: 2018
Project: Estrategias Para El Control y Remediación Natural de Compuestos Orgánicos Emergentes en Aguas Residuales. Impacto en El Medio Marino. 
Journal: Environmental Science and Pollution Research 
Abstract: Eight wastewater samples from a university campus were analysed between May and July of 2014 to determine the concentration of 14 natural and synthetic steroid hormones. An on-line solid-phase extraction combined with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (on-line SPE-UHPLC-MS/MS) was used as extraction, pre-concentration and detection method. In the samples studied, three oestrogens (17β-estradiol, estrone and estriol), two androgens (boldenone and testosterone), three progestogens (norgestrel, progesterone and norethisterone) and one glucocorticoid (prednisone) were detected. The removal of hormones was studied in primary and secondary constructed wetland mesocosms. The porous media of the primary constructed wetlands were palm tree mulch. These reactors were used to study the effect of water flow, i.e. horizontal (HF1) vs vertical (VF1). The latter was more efficient in the removal of 17β-estradiol (HF1: 30%, VF1: 50%), estrone (HF1: 63%, VF1: 85%), estriol (100% both), testosterone (HF1: 45%, VF1: 73%), boldenone (HF1:-77%, VF1: 100%) and progesterone (HF1: 84%, VF1: 99%). The effluent of HF1 was used as influent of three secondary constructed wetland mesocosms: two double-stage vertical flow constructed wetlands, one with gravel (VF2gravel) and one with palm mulch (VF2mulch), and a mineral-based, horizontal flow constructed wetland (HFmineral). VF2mulch was the most efficient of the secondary reactors, since it achieved the complete removal of the hormones studied with the exception of 17ß-estradiol. The significantly better removal of BOD and ammonia attained by VF2mulch suggests that the better aeration of mulch favoured the more efficient removal of hormones.
ISSN: 0944-1344
DOI: 10.1007/s11356-017-9307-8
Source: Environmental Science and Pollution Research [ISSN 0944-1344]. n. 25, p. 20374–20384
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