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Title: Protective immune responses during prepatency in goat kids experimentally infected with Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae
Authors: Matos, L.
Muñoz, M. C. 
Molina Caballero, José Manuel 
Rodríguez, F. 
Pérez Barreto, Davinia
Lopez, A. 
Ferrer, O. 
Hermosilla, C.
Taubert, A.
Ruiz Reyes, Antonio 
UNESCO Clasification: 3109 Ciencias veterinarias
Keywords: Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae
Immune response
Issue Date: 2017
Journal: Veterinary Parasitology 
Abstract: During the first schizogony, the goat coccidia Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae develops macroschizonts in lacteal duct endothelial cells, whose rupture leads to severe ileal damage and clinical signs during the prepatent period. The immune response elicited against early stages of the parasite development still requires to be investigated. In the present study we have evaluated immune reactions in goat kids primary- and challenged-infected with Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae, and sacrificed during prepatency (7 days after challenge). The oocyst output during the primary infection, body weight and clinical condition of all the animals were examined and, at the end of the experiment, all the goat kids were euthanized and subjected to necropsy. Samples were taken from different sections of the ileum, colon and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of primary- and challenged E. ninakohlyakimovae-infected animals. Intestinal leukocyte subpopulations were characterized in E. ninakohlyakimovae-infected mucosa and counts of lymphocytes, eosinophils, polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), globular leukocytes and mast cells were recorded. Additionally, gene expression of caprine IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and INF gamma of ileal, colonic and MLN tissues were performed, as well as the immunohistochemical characterization of immune cells. The E. ninakohlyakimovae primary infection resulted in moderate to severe enteritis with different degrees of diarrhoea and was accompanied by high OPG counts and an increase of most immune cells analyzed when compared to uninfected control animals. Furthermore, eosinophil-, lymphocyte-, globular leukocyte- and mast cell-counts were significantly higher in the challenge group compared to the primary infected animals, whilst the opposite was true for PMN counts. The challenge infection was also associated with moderate increased levels of local mucosal IgA. Interestingly, the number of immature schizonts found at the ileal mucosa was statistically higher in the challenge infected group compared to the challenged control animals. Furthermore, in the challenged E. ninakohlyakimovae-infected animals a significantly higher number of mucosal CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes were observed, indicating that these T cell subpopulations might be involved in protective host immune response elicited against early stages of parasite development. The immune response was however very complex, as antigen presenting cells and other effector cell populations of the innate immune system, as well as certain cytokines, were involved. In summary, the results of this study contribute to the better understanding of local cellular and humoral immune responses against caprine E. ninakohlyakimovae, particularly during the prepatency.
ISSN: 0304-4017
DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2017.04.016
Source: Veterinary Parasitology[ISSN 0304-4017],v. 242, p. 1-9
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