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Title: Natural iron fertilization by shallow hydrothermal sources fuels diazotroph blooms in the ocean
Authors: Bonnet, Sophie
Guieu, Cécile
Taillandier, Vincent
Boulart, Cédric
Bouruet-Aubertot, Pascale
Gazeau, Frédéric
Scalabrin, Carla
Bressac, Matthieu
Knapp, Angela N.
Cuypers, Yannis
González Santana, David 
Forrer, Heather J.
Grisoni, Jean Michel
Grosso, Olivier
Habasque, Jérémie
Jardin-Camps, Mercedes
Leblond, Nathalie
Le Moigne, Frédéric A.C.
Lebourges-Dhaussy, Anne
Lory, Caroline
Nunige, Sandra
Pulido-Villena, Elvira
Rizzo, Andrea L.
Sarthou, Géraldine
Tilliette, Chloé
UNESCO Clasification: 251002 Oceanografía química
Issue Date: 2023
Journal: Science
Abstract: Iron is an essential nutrient that regulates productivity in ~30% of the ocean. Compared with deep (>2000 meter) hydrothermal activity at mid-ocean ridges that provide iron to the ocean’s interior, shallow (<500 meter) hydrothermal fluids are likely to influence the surface’s ecosystem. However, their effect is unknown. In this work, we show that fluids emitted along the Tonga volcanic arc (South Pacific) have a substantial impact on iron concentrations in the photic layer through vertical diffusion. This enrichment stimulates biological activity, resulting in an extensive patch of chlorophyll (360,000 square kilometers). Diazotroph activity is two to eight times higher and carbon export fluxes are two to three times higher in iron-enriched waters than in adjacent unfertilized waters. Such findings reveal a previously undescribed mechanism of natural iron fertilization in the ocean that fuels regional hotspot sinks for atmospheric CO2
ISSN: 0036-8075
DOI: 10.1126/science.abq4654
Source: Science [ISSN 0036-8075], v. 380, n. 6647. p. 812-817
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