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Title: The Hypothalamus of the Beaked Whales: The Paraventricular, Supraoptic, and Suprachiasmatic Nuclei
Authors: Sacchini, Simona 
Bombardi, Cristiano
Arbelo Hernández, Manuel Antonio 
Herráez Thomas, Pedro Manuel 
UNESCO Clasification: 24 Ciencias de la vida
Keywords: Beaked Whales
Paraventricular Nucleus
Suprachiasmatic Nucleus
Supraoptic Nucleus, et al
Issue Date: 2023
Journal: Biology 
Abstract: The hypothalamus is the body’s control coordinating center. It is responsible for maintaining the body’s homeostasis by directly influencing the autonomic nervous system or managing hormones. Beaked whales are the longest divers among cetaceans and their brains are rarely available for study. Complete hypothalamic samples from a female Cuvier’s beaked whale and a male Blainville’s beaked whale were processed to investigate the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) nuclei, using immunohistochemical staining against vasopressin. The PVN occupied the preoptic region, where it reached its maximum size, and then regressed in the anterior or suprachiasmatic region. The SON was located from the preoptic to the tuberal hypothalamic region, encompassing the optical structures. It was composed of a retrochiasmatic region (SONr), which bordered and infiltrated the optic tracts, and a principal region (SONp), positioned more medially and dorsally. A third vasopressin-positive nucleus was also detected, i.e., the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), which marked the end of the SON. This is the first description of the aforementioned nuclei in beaked whales—and in any marine mammals—as well as their rostro-caudal extent and immunoreactivity. Moreover, the SCN has been recognized for the first time in any marine mammal species.
DOI: 10.3390/biology12101319
Source: Biology [EISSN 2079-7737], v. 12 (10), (Octubre 2023).
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