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Title: Toxicity of tire particle leachates on early life stages of keystone sea urchin species
Authors: Rist Rist,Sinja 
Le Du-Carrée, Jessy Medhy Manu 
Ugwu, Kevin
Intermite, Chiara
Acosta Dacal, Andrea Carolina 
Pérez Luzardo, Octavio Luis 
Zumbado Peña, Manuel Luis 
Gómez Cabrera, María Milagrosa 
Almeda García, Rodrigo 
UNESCO Clasification: 330811 Control de la contaminación del agua
331210 Plásticos
251001 Oceanografía biológica
Keywords: Biochemistry
Sea Urchin Larvae
Tire Wear Particles
Issue Date: 2023
Project: Impacto de Los Aditivos Lixiviados de Los Microplásticos en El Plancton 
Journal: Environmental Pollution 
Abstract: Particles from tires are a major fraction of microplastic pollution. They contain a wide range of chemical additives that can leach into the water and be harmful to aquatic organisms. In this study, we investigated the acute toxicity of tire particle leachates in early life stages of three keystone echinoderm species (Paracentrotus lividus, Arbacia lixula, Diadema africanum). Embryos were exposed for 72 h to a range of leachate dilutions, prepared using a concentration of 1 g L−1. Larval growth, abnormal development, and mortality were the measured endpoints. Furthermore, we estimated the activity of glutathione S transferase (GST) and the electron transport system (ETS) in P. lividus. Strong concentration-dependent responses were observed in all species, though with differing sensitivity. The median effect concentrations for abnormal development in P. lividus and A. lixula were 0.16 and 0.35 g L−1, respectively. In D. africanum, mortality overshadowed abnormal development and the median lethal concentration was 0.46 g L−1. Larvae of P. lividus were significantly smaller than the control from 0.125 g L−1, while the other two species were affected from 0.5 g L−1. ETS activity did not change but there was a non-significant trend of increasing GST activity with leachate concentration in P. lividus. Seven organic chemicals and eight metals were detected at elevated concentrations in the leachates. While we regard zinc as a strong candidate to explain some of the observed toxicity, it can be expected that tire particle leachates exhibit a cocktail effect and other leached additives may also contribute to their toxicity. Our results emphasize the importance of multi-species studies as they differ in their susceptibility to tire particle pollution. We found negative effects at concentrations close to projections in the environment, which calls for more research and mitigation actions on these pollutants.
ISSN: 0269-7491
DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2023.122453
Source: Environmental Pollution [ISSN 0269-7491],v. 336, (Noviembre 2023)
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