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Title: Consistent picture of the horizontal circulation of the Atlantic Ocean over 3 decades
Authors: Caínzos Díaz, Verónica 
Pérez Hernández, María Dolores 
Santana Toscano, Daniel 
Arumí Planas, Cristina 
Hernández Guerra, Alonso 
UNESCO Clasification: 251007 Oceanografía física
Issue Date: 2023
Project: El Portal Sudatlántico en la Cinta Transportadora Global 
Journal: Ocean Science 
Abstract: The circulation in the Atlantic Ocean is marked by the complex system of pathways of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). These currents change meridionally due to the interaction with nearby water masses. Hydrographic data provide the opportunity to characterize these currents for the whole water column with high-resolution data over the last 30 years. Moreover, inverse methods enable the quantification of absolute zonal transports across these sections, determining the strength of each current at a certain latitude in terms of mass, heat, and freshwater, as well as their transport-weighted temperature and salinity. Generally, no changes can be found among decades for each of the currents in terms of transport or their properties. In the South Atlantic, the circulation describes the subtropical gyre affected by several recirculations. There are nearly 61 Sv entering from the Southern and Indian oceans at 45∘ S. The South Atlantic subtropical gyre exports 17.0 ± 1.2 Sv and around 1 PW northward via the North Brazil Current, as well as −55 Sv southward at 45∘ S into the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. In the North Atlantic, most of the transport is advected northward via the western boundary currents, which reduce their strength as they take part in convection processes in the subpolar North Atlantic, also reflected in the northward progress of mass and heat transport. Deep layers carry waters southward along the western boundary, maintaining similar values of mass and heat transport until the separation into an eastern branch crossing the mid-Atlantic Ridge in the South Atlantic. Abyssal waters originating in the Southern Ocean are distributed along the South Atlantic mainly through its western subbasin, flowing northward up to 24.5∘ N, subjected to an increasing trend in their temperature with time.
ISSN: 1812-0784
Source: Ocean Science [ISSN 1812-0784], v. 19(4), p. 1009-1045
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