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Title: Assessing Viral Abundance and Community Composition in Four Contrasting Regions of the Southern Ocean
Authors: Sotomayor-Garcia, Ana
Sala, María Montserrat
Ferrera, Isabel
Estrada, Marta
Vázquez-Dominguez, Evaristo
Emelianov, Mikhail
Cortes, Pau
Marrase, Cèlia
Ortega-Retuerta, Eva
Nunes, Sdena
Castillo, Yaiza M.
Serrano Cuerva, Maria
Sebastián Caumel, Marta 
Dall'Osto, Manuel
Simó, Rafel
Vaqué, Dolors
UNESCO Clasification: 251001 Oceanografía biológica
240106 Ecología animal
Keywords: Viral abundance
Viral community composition
Environmental variables, et al
Issue Date: 2020
Journal: Life 
Abstract: We explored how changes of viral abundance and community composition among four contrasting regions in the Southern Ocean relied on physicochemical and microbiological traits. During January–February 2015, we visited areas north and south of the South Orkney Islands (NSO and SSO) characterized by low temperature and salinity and high inorganic nutrient concentration, north of South Georgia Island (NSG) and west of Anvers Island (WA), which have relatively higher temperatures and lower inorganic nutrient concentrations. Surface viral abundance (VA) was highest in NSG (21.50 ± 10.70 × 106 viruses mL−1) and lowest in SSO (2.96 ± 1.48 × 106 viruses mL−1). VA was positively correlated with temperature, prokaryote abundance and prokaryotic heterotrophic production, chlorophyll a, diatoms, haptophytes, fluorescent organic matter, and isoprene concentration, and was negatively correlated with inorganic nutrients (NO3−, SiO42−, PO43−), and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) concentrations. Viral communities determined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA–polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) were grouped according to the sampling location, being more similar within them than among regions. The first two axes of a canonical correspondence analysis, including physicochemical (temperature, salinity, inorganic nutrients—NO3−, SiO42−, and dimethyl sulfoniopropionate-DMSP-and isoprene concentrations) and microbiological (chlorophyll a, haptophytes and diatom, and prokaryote abundance and prokaryotic heterotrophic production) factors accounted for 62.9% of the variance. The first axis, temperature-related, accounted for 33.8%; the second one, salinity-related, accounted for 29.1%. Thus, different environmental situations likely select different hosts for viruses, leading to distinct viral communities.
ISSN: 2075-1729
DOI: 10.3390/life10070107
Source: Life [ISSN 2075-1729], v. 10 (7), 107, (2020)
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