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Title: Lessons from the Criticality of the Spanish High Capacity Road Network on Direct, Representative Democracies and Technocracies
Authors: Martín Hernández, Juan Carlos 
Román García, Concepción 
Keywords: Federalism
Roads' criticality
Complex networks
Accessibility DEA indicators
Technocracy, et al
Issue Date: 2022
Journal: Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy 
Abstract: This paper aims to shed some light on an issue that has not been analyzed enough in previous studies on complex transportation networks. The financial crisis and disrupting events like the COVID-19 pandemic episode are affecting how governments make crucial decisions regarding policymaking paying more attention to experts’ opinions. The impacts of disruptive events that could affect each road section will be analyzed using the criticality of the high capacity road network in Spain under different policymaking scenarios, such as direct democracy based on pure provincial decentralization (federal or cantonal vision), representative democracy in which decisions are taken by the National Parliament, and the governance based on technocracy stimulated by ‘what matters is what works’ (Southern Local Economy, 16(4), 264-271, 2001) using an Evidence-Based Policy Making (EBPM) case study based on a Data Envelopment Analysis applied to four accessibility indicators. We will complement our analysis with the different results obtained by the different national parties that were represented in the past election (November, 2019): PSOE, PP, VOX, Unidas Podemos, Ezquerra Republicana de Catalunya, Ciudadanos, Junts per Catalunya, Partido Nacionalista Vasco and Euskal Herria Bildu, exploring in-depth the obtained differences between the technocrat solution and the direct and representative democracy results. Important insights and lessons for the future will be obtained from the different party visions observed among the regionalist (nationalist) and the state-wide parties. The spillover effects created by the networks are so important that the room for federalist solutions might be very limited.
ISSN: 1874-463X
DOI: 10.1007/s12061-022-09451-5
Source: Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy [ISSN 1874-463X], (Abril 2022)
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