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Title: Copper toxicity leads to accumulation of free amino acids and polyphenols in Phaeodactylum tricornutum diatoms
Authors: Santiago Díaz, Paula 
Rivero Rosales, Argimiro 
Rico Santos, Milagros 
González González, Aridane 
González Dávila, Melchor 
Santana Casiano, Juana Magdalena 
UNESCO Clasification: 241707 Algología (ficología)
251002 Oceanografía química
Keywords: Amino acids
Antioxidant activity
Copper toxicity, et al
Issue Date: 2023
Project: ATOPFe project (CTM2017-83476-P) by the Spanish Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad.
Efecto de la Acidificacion Oceanica, la Temperaturay El Contenido de Materia Organica en la Persistencia de Fe(Ii) en El Oceano Atlantico 
Journal: Environmental Science and Pollution Research 
Abstract: This work is focused on the effect of lethal and sub-lethal copper (Cu) concentrations on the free amino acid and polyphenol production by the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum (P. tricornutum) after 12, 18, and 21 days of exposure. The concentrations of 10 amino acids (arginine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, histidine, lysine, methionine, proline, valine, isoleucine, and phenylalanine) and 10 polyphenols (gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, catechin, vanillic acid, epicatechin syringic acid, rutin, and gentisic acid) were measured by RP-HPLC. Under lethal doses of Cu, free amino acids reached levels significantly higher than those in the control cells (up to 21.9 times higher), where histidine and methionine showed the highest increases (up to 37.4 and 65.8 times higher, respectively). The total phenolic content also increased up to 11.3 and 5.59 times higher compared to the reference cells, showing gallic acid the highest increase (45.8 times greater). The antioxidant activities of cells exposed to Cu were also enhanced with increasing doses of Cu(II). They were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging ability (RSA), cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Malonaldehyde (MDA) exhibited the same tendency: cells grown at the highest lethal Cu concentration yielded the highest MDA level. These findings reflect the involvement of amino acids and polyphenols in protective mechanisms to overcome the toxicity of copper in marine microalgae.
ISSN: 0944-1344
DOI: 10.1007/s11356-023-25939-0
Source: Environmental Science and Pollution Research [ISSN 0944-1344], febrero 2023
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